Effects of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Peganum harmala Against the Venom of the Iranian Snake Naja naja oxiana in Mice

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Peganum harmala contains pharmacologically active compounds and has been utilized for various purposes over the years. Due to public health concerns about snakebite envenoming, this study aimed to assess the potential antagonistic effects of this plant against the lethal impact of snake (Naja naja oxiana) venom. This study used five protocols and 56 adult albino mice in seven equal groups (A, B1, B2, C, D, E, and F). In protocol I (control), group A received only 4 mg/kg of venom, while groups B1 and B2 received the P. harmala extract at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. In protocol II, group C was simultaneously administered 15 mg/kg of the extract and 4 mg/kg of venom. In protocol III, group D received 4 mg/kg of venom, followed by the administration of 15 mg/kg of the extract after 20 min. In protocol IV, group E was treated with venom-extract pre-incubated for 20 min at the same doses. In protocol V, group F received 30 mg/kg of the extract orally 60 min before the injection of venom at 4 mg/kg. The route of injection was IP. The average time of death after venom injection was 31 ± 5 min. Groups B1 and B2 survived, while the animals in group C died after 29 ± 7 min, group D after 18 ± 4 min, group E after 17 ± 5 min, and group F after 22 ± 3 min. In conclusion, P. harmala does not protect against Naja naja venom and accelerates its lethal effect in an unknown way.

Graphical Abstract

Effects of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Peganum harmala Against the Venom of the Iranian Snake Naja naja oxiana in Mice


Main Subjects

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Volume 16, Issue 1 - Serial Number 34
This issue XML files are being prepared.
February 2024
Pages 52-59
  • Receive Date: 13 September 2023
  • Revise Date: 09 January 2024
  • Accept Date: 04 February 2024