Congenital First Pharyngeal Arch Anomaly in a Holstein Friesian Calf

Document Type : Case report


1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.

2 Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Mehr Pet Clinic, Tabriz, Iran .

3 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.

4 Resident of Large Animal Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

5 Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.


The developmental error of the first pair of pharyngeal arch processes would result in a group of malformations related to the oral cavity. These malformations can be listed as agnathia, micrognathia, brachygnathia, syngnathia, cleft palate, campylognathia, parrot beak, and strophocephalia. Campylognathia is an anomaly in which the lower or upper jaw deviated from the midline. Clinical examination of a newborn female Holstein Friesian calf showed mandibular deviation, inferior and superior cheek teeth deformation, and some other facial malformations. No similar case was detected in the history of the herd. Precise consideration of malformed animals and the extent of involvement of different structures indicates the pattern of malformation, the time of teratogenic effect, and the motive embryonic structures. In the present case, the involvement of derivatives of both maxillary and mandibular processes shows the responsibility of the first pharyngeal arch for mentioned abnormalities. In humans, different types of abnormal development of the first pharyngeal arch have been reported and so, have been classified under the “first visceral arch syndrome”. But according to the infrequency of reports, this classification has not been done in domestic animals.


Main Subjects

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Volume 14, Issue 1 - Serial Number 26
This issue XML file is being prepared.
April 2022
Pages 45-49
  • Receive Date: 25 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 05 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 11 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 April 2022