Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from Clarias gariepinus farms in Kaduna state, Nigeria

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

2 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

3 Department of Zoology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria.

4 Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

5 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

6 Department of Animal Health Technology, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology Igboora, Oyo State, Nigeria.


Fish farming is increasing globally, with an increase in bacterial infections known to cause morbidity and varying mortality, affecting the productivity and profitability of aquaculture. The objective of this study was to determine the antibiotics susceptibility and multiple antibiotic resistance index of bacteria isolated from fish in some selected fish farms in Kaduna State to ten commonly used antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. In total, 84 bacteria were isolated from 75 Clarias gariepinus in this study, belonging to 12 genera. The antibiotic profile of the bacteria isolated displayed different sensitivity and resistance to the antibiotics used. The highest numbers of the Gram-positive (59.5%) and Gram-negative (69%) bacteria, respectively, were sensitive to ciprofloxacin compared to the other antibiotics. All the bacterial isolates displayed varying diversity of multidrug-resistant patterns. A total of 38 and 41 different resistance patterns for Gram-positive and Gram-negative respectively were observed. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index analysis reveals that 97.3% of the bacteria had a high MAR index value (> 0.2). In conclusion, there is a diversity of bacteria organisms within the fish farms that are pathogenic to both fish and humans. Therefore, there is a need to implement optimal preventive management measures and control the use of antibiotics. 


Main Subjects

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Volume 14, Issue 1 - Serial Number 26
This issue XML file is being prepared.
April 2022
Pages 29-38
  • Receive Date: 15 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 03 March 2022
  • Accept Date: 25 March 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 April 2022