The anti-planktonic and anti-biofilm formation activity of Iranian pomegranate peel hydro-extract against Staphylococcus aureus

Document Type : Research Articles


Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman


Staphylococcal infections and contaminations have elicited a growing and perennial concern in the medical and food industries. Meanwhile, the manifestation of antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) beside the production of disinfectant-resistant biofilms makes the confrontation with the bacteria more cumbersome and challenging. Pomegranate peel as a waste product of juicing factories is a natural antibacterial agent. The pomegranate peel hydro-extract (PPHE), as a bio-friendly material, was prepared from an Iranian pomegranate cultivar, Rabab, and its phenolic compounds and antioxidant (via DPPH and FRAP assays) and anti-staphylococcal (anti-planktonic and anti-biofilm) properties were assessed. The Rabab PPHE inhibited planktonic cells and biofilm formation of three S. aureus. The Rabab PPHE produced large and obvious staphylococcal inhibition zones in which their diameters were significantly dose-dependent for the milk isolated S. aureus (p < 0.05). Despite the resistance of MRSA (ATCC 33591) to beta-lactam antibiotics, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPHE against its planktonic cells was only 3.75mg mL-1. Furthermore, Rabab PPHE inhibited bacterial biofilms formation in a dose-dependent manner. The MIC of Rabab PPHE against planktonic milk-isolated S. aureus, S. aureus (ATCC 29737), and MRSA prevented 47, 36, and 26% of their biofilm formation, respectively. This addresses the differences between the anti-planktonic and anti-biofilm activity of Rabab PPHE. The anti-planktonic and to a lesser extent the anti-biofilm forming activity of this water-based extract supports the notion of its effectiveness and salubrious application in food and pharmaceutical industries.


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