Antibacterial eff ect of Lavandula stoechas and Origanum majorana essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli

Document Type : Research Articles


1 university of gonbad kavous

2 university of bonbad kavous


This research examined the antimicrobial effect of Lavandula stoechas (lavender) and Origanum majorana (marjoram) essential oil against three mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed that the main components of the lavender and marjoram oils were 17-Pentatriacontene, Linalyl acetate, Eucalyptol, linalool and 3-Cyclohexene-1-ol,4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-,(R)-, α-terpineol, P-cymene, respectively. Broth dilution testing was performed using autoclaved whole milk instead of broth to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of essential oils alone and in combination. In addition, time-kill assay of lavender and marjoram oils were determined in milk up to 24 h. MIC values ranged from 3.12 - 4.37% v/v and MBC between 6.25 - 8.75% v/v for the lavender. The MIC and MBC of the marjoram ranged from 0.62 - 1.87% v/v and 1.25 - 3.75% v/v, respectively. The MIC ranged from 2.5 - 5% v/v and MBC between 5 - 10% v/v for lavender + marjoram combination. In time-kill assays, the presence of lavender and marjoram oils at a sub-MIC concentration significantly reduced the bacterial population in 4, 10 and 24 h. Generally, essential oil of marjoram had greater antibacterial activity than lavender against all mastitis-causing pathogens tested and has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of bovine mastitis.


1. Bouyahya A, Et-Touys A, Abrini J, Talbaoui A, Fellah H, Bakri Y,
et al. Lavandula stoechas essential oil from Morocco as novel
source of antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
Biocatal Agric Biotechnol. 2017; 12: 179–184.
2. Essid R, Zahra F, Msaada K, Sghair I, Hammami M, Bouratbine
A, et al. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic potential of essential
oils from medicinal plants in Northern Tunisia. Ind Crop
Prod. 2015; 77: 795-802.
3. Solorzano-Santos F, Miranda-Novales MG. Essential oils from
aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents. Curr Opin Biotechnol.
2012; 23(2): 136–141.
4. Montironi ID, Cariddi LN, Reinoso EB. Evaluation of the antimicrobial
effi cacy of Minthostachys verticillata essential
oil and limonene against Streptococcus uberis strains isolated
from bovine mastitis. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2016; 48(3):
5. Dadaliolu I, Evrendilek GA. Chemical
compositions and antibacterial eff ects
of essential oils of Turkish oregano (
Origanum minutifl orum ), bay laurel
( Laurus nobilis ), Spanish lavender
( Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel
( Foeniculum vulgare ) on Common
foodborne pathogens. J Agric Food
Chem. 2004; 52(26): 8255–8260.
6. Benabdelkader T, Zitouni A, Guitton
Y, Frederic J, Dany M, Herve C, et al.
Essential oils from wild populations of
Algerian Lavandula stoechas L.: Composition,
chemical variability, and in
vitro biological properties. Chem Biodivers.
2011; 8(5): 937–953.
7. Carrasco A, Ortiz-Ruiz V, Martinez-
Gutierrez R, Tomas V, Tudela J.
Lavandula stoechas essential oil from
Spain: Aromatic profi le determined
by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,
antioxidant and lipoxygenase
inhibitory bioactivities. Ind Crops
Prod. 2015; 73: 16–27.
8. Bina F, Rahimi R. Sweet marjoram: a
review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry,
and biological activities.
J Evidence-Based Complement Altern
Med. 2017; 22(1): 175–185.
9. Contreras GA, Rodriguez JM. Mastitis:
Comparative etiology and epidemiology.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia.
2011; 16(4): 339–356.
10. Taponen S, Nykäsenoja S, Pohjanvirta
T, Pitkälä A, Pyörälä S. Species distribution
and in vitro antimicrobial
susceptibility of coagulase-negative
staphylococci isolated from bovine
mastitic milk. Acta Vet Scand. 2016;
58(1): 1–13.
11. Lammers A, Kruijt E, Kuijt C, Nuijten
PJM, Smith HE. Identifi cation
of Staphylococcus aureus genes expressed
during growth in milk: A
useful model for selection of genes
important in bovine mastitis?. Microbiology.
2000; 146(4): 981–987.
12. Ananda Baskaran S, Kazmer GW,
Hinckley L, Andrew SM, Venkitanarayanan
K. Antibacterial eff ect of
plant-derived antimicrobials on major
bacterial mastitis pathogens in vitro. J
Dairy Sci. 2009; 92(4): 1423–1429.
13. Park YK, Fox LK, Hancock DD, Mc-
Mahan W, Park YH. Prevalence and
antibiotic resistance of mastitis pathogens
isolated from dairy herds transitioning
to organic management. J Vet
Sci. 2012; 13(1): 103–105.
14. Hood JR, Wilkinson JM, Cavanagh
HMA. Evaluation of common antibacterial
screening methods utilized
in essential oil research evaluation of
common antibacterial screening methods
utilized in essential oil research. J
Essent Oil Res. 2003; 15: 37–41.
15. Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial
properties and potential applications
in foods-a review. Int J Food Microbiol.
2004; 94: 223–253.
16. Asghari J, Sadani S, Ghaemi E, Mazaheri
Tehrani, M. Investigation of composition
and antimicrobial properties
of Lavandula stoechas essential oil using
disk diff usion and broth microdilution.
Med Lab J. 2016; 10(3): 53–58.
17. Mashak Z, Fayazfar S, Cheraghi N.
Antimicrobial eff ect of Chitosan fi lm
incorporated with Lavandula stoechas
on some food-borne bacteria. J Food
Microbiol. 2016; 3(1): 55–62.
18. Hajlaoui H, Mighri H, Aouni M,
Gharsallah N, Kadri A. Chemical
composition and in vitro evaluation of
antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity
and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties
of Tunisian Origanum majorana
L. essential oil. Microb Pathog. 2016;
95: 86–94.
19. Ramos S, Rojas LB, Lucena ME, Meccia
G, Usubillaga A. Chemical composition
and antibacterial activity of Origanum
majorana L. essential oil from the
Venezuelan Andes. J Essent Oil Res.
2011; 23(5): 45–49.
20. Tahmasebi S, Majd A, Mehrafarin A,
onoubi P. Qualitative and quantitative
assessment of the essential oils of Origanum
vulgare and Origanum majorana
in Iran. Med Plant. 2014; 13(50):
21. Marques J de L, Volcão LM, Funck GD,
Kroning IS, da Silva WP, et al. Antimicrobial
activity of essential oils of Origanum
vulgare L. and Origanum majorana
L. against Staphylococcus aureus
isolated from poultry meat. Ind Crops
Prod. 2015; 77: 444–450.
22. Roller S, Ernest N, Buckle J. Th e antimicrobial
activity of high-necrodane
and other lavender oils on methicillin-
sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MSSA and MRSA). J
Altern Complement Med. 2009; 15(3):
23. Gayatri MC, Sudha U, Shubha J, Kavya
K. Evaluation of antibacterial activity
of Lavandula stoechas L. Essential oil.
2013; 22(2): 188–193.
24. Joshi B, Lekhak S, Sharma A. Antibacterial
property of diff erent medicinal
plants: Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum
zeylanicum, Xanthoxylum armatum
and Origanum majorana.
Kathmandu Univ J Sci Eng Technol.
2010; 5(1): 143–150.
25. Zhu H, Du M, Fox L, Zhu MJ. Bactericidal
eff ects of Cinnamon cassia
oil against bovine mastitis bacterial
pathogens. Food Control. 2016; 66:
26. Hamida-Ben Ezzeddine N Ben, Abdelkefi
MM, Aissa R Ben, Chaabouni
MM. Antibacterial screening of Origanum
majorana L. oil from Tunisia. J
Essent Oil Res. 2001; 13(4): 295–297.
27. Misaghi A, Basti AA. Eff ects of Zataria
multifl ora Boiss. essential oil and nisin
on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Food
Control. 2007; 18(9): 1043–1049.
28. Mullen KAE, Sparks LG, Lyman RL,
Washburn SP, Anderson KL. Comparisons
of milk quality on North Carolina
organic and conventional dairies.
J Dairy Sci. 2013; 96(10): 6753–6762.
29. Basti AA, Misaghi A, Khaschabi D.
Growth response and modeling of
the eff ects of Zataria multifl ora Boiss.
essential oil, pH and temperature on
Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus
aureus. LWT - Food Sci
Technol. 2007; 40(6): 973–981.
30. Clinical and Laboratory Standards
Institute (CLSI). Methods for dilution
antimicrobial susceptibility tests
for bacteria that grow aerobically;
approved standard. 9th ed.; 2012.
M07-A9; 32(2).