Immune response characteristics of Capri pox virus vaccines following emergency vaccination of cattle against lumpy skin disease virus

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute

2 Urmia University

3 Babol University of Medical Sciences


In this research immune response characteristics of two available heterologous vaccines including Gorgan goat pox virus (GPV) and Romanian sheep pox virus (SPV) vaccines against lumpy skin disease have been examined, by using the monitoring of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vaccinated calves in the field. The evaluation of humoral immune response showed that the neutralizing antibody titers in both vaccinated groups started at day 7 post-vaccination, then reached to the protective level at day 21 post-vaccination and persisted till 35 day post-vaccination. The neutralizing antibody titers in GPV-vaccinated calves (GVC) the ratio was higher than SPV-vaccinated calves (RVC), and on days 21 and 35 post-vaccination were significantly different (p


1. OIE. Manual of Diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. paris: World Organization for Animal Health; 2004. p. 1-17.
2. Frederick A. Murphy, E. Paul J. Gibbs, Marian C. Horzinek, Michael J. Studdert. Veterinary Virology. Hardcover: Academic Press 1999. 629 p.
3. Carn VM. Control of capripoxvirus infections. Vaccine. 1993;11(13):1275-9.
4. OIE. Lumpy skin diseas; Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. paris: World Organization for Animal Health; 2010. p. 1-13.
5. Davies FG. Lumpy skin disease, an African capripox virus disease of cattle. The British veterinary journal. 1991;147(6):489-503.
6. Tilahun Z, Berecha B, Simenew K, Reta D. Towards Effective Vaccine Production: A Controlled Field Trial on the Immunological Response of Three Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine Strains in Dairy Farms. 2014.
7. El-Kholy AA, Soliman HMT, Abdelrahman KA. Polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of a recent lumpy skin disease virus incursion to Egypt. Arab Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;11(2):293-302.
8. Kitching RP. Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox. Developments in biologicals. 2003;114:161-7.
9. Carn VM, Kitching RP. The clinical response of cattle experimentally infected with lumpy skin disease (Neethling) virus. Arch Virol. 1995;140(3):503-13.
10. Gari G, Abie G, Gizaw D, Wubete A, Kidane M, Asgedom H, et al. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus. Vaccine. 2015;33(28):3256-61.
11. Kitching RP, Hammond JM, Taylor WP. A single vaccine for the control of capripox infection in sheep and goats. Research in veterinary science. 1987;42(1):53-60.
12. Davies FG, Otema C. Relationships of capripox viruses found in Kenya with two Middle Eastern strains and some orthopox viruses. Research in veterinary science. 1981;31(2):253-5.
13. Varshovi HR, Keyvanfar H, Aghaiypour K, Pourbakhsh SA, Shooshtari AH, Aghaebrahimian M. Capripoxvirus identification by PCR based on P32 gene Archives of Razi Institute. 2009;64(No.1):19-25.
14. Tuppurainen ES, Oura CA. Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Transboundary and emerging diseases. 2012;59(1):40-8.
15. Brenner J, Bellaiche M, Gross E, Elad D, Oved Z, Haimovitz M, et al. Appearance of skin lesions in cattle populations vaccinated against lumpy skin disease: statutory challenge. Vaccine. 2009;27(10):1500-3.
16. Coetzer JAW. Lumpy skin disease; Infectious Diseases of Livestock. Oxford University Press2004.
17. OIE. Manual of recommended diagnostic techniques and requirements for biological products. World Organization for Animal Health: Rue de Prony; 1992. p. 1-5.
18. Diallo A, Viljoen GJ. Genus capripoxvirus. Poxviruses: Springer; 2007. p. 167-81.
19. Blanco E, McCullough K, Summerfield A, Fiorini J, Andreu D, Chiva C, et al. Interspecies major histocompatibility complex-restricted Th cell epitope on footand-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP4. Journal of virology. 2000;74(10):4902-7.
20. Rodriguez A, Saiz JC, Novella IS, Andreu D, Sobrino F. Antigenic specificity of porcine T cell response against foot-and-mouth disease virus structural proteins: identification of T helper epitopes in VP1. Virology. 1994;205(1):2433.
21. Eble PL, de Bruin MG, Bouma A, van Hemert-Kluitenberg F, Dekker A. Comparison of immune responses after intra-typic heterologous and homologous vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in pigs. Vaccine. 2006;24(9):1274-81.
22. Ryan JE, Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova IG, Vierkant RA, Pankratz VS, Poland GA. Response surface methodology to determine optimal cytokine responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after smallpox vaccination. Journal of immunological methods. 2009;341(1-2):97-105.
23. Barnett PV, Cox SJ, Aggarwal N, Gerber H, McCullough KC. Further studies on the early protective responses of pigs following immunisation with high potency foot and mouth disease vaccine. Vaccine. 2002;20(25-26):3197-208.
24. Rigden RC, Carrasco CP, Barnett PV, Summerfield A, McCullough KC. Innate immune responses following emergency vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus in pigs. Vaccine. 2003;21(13– 14):1466-77.
25. Barman D, Chatterjee A, Guha C, Biswas U, Sarkar J, Roy TK, et al. Estimation of post-vaccination antibody titre against goat pox and determination of protective antibody titre. Small Ruminant Research. 2010;93(2):76-8.
26. Heba A. Khafagy MGA, Abdelmoneim M. Mustafa , Mohamed A. Saad, AA. Preparation and field evaluationof live attenuated sheep pox vaccine for protection of calves against lumpy skin disease Benha Veterinary Medical Journal. 2016;31(2):1-7.
27. Mohamed G.Abdelwahab HAK, Abdelmoneim M. Moustafa, Mohamed A. Saad. Evaluation of Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity of Lumpy Skin Disease Vaccine Prepared from Local strainin calves and Its Related to Maternal Immunity. Journal of American Science. 2016;21(10).
28. de Swart RL, Kluten RM, Huizing CJ, Vedder LJ, Reijnders PJ, Visser IK, et al. Mitogen and antigen induced B and T cell responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 1993;37(34):217-30.
29. Barnard AL, Arriens A, Cox S, Barnett P, Kristensen B, Summerfield A, et al. Immune response characteristics following emergency vaccination of pigs against foot-and-mouth disease. Vaccine. 2005;23(8):1037-47.
30. Saiz JC, Rodriguez A, Gonzalez M, Alonso F, Sobrino F. Heterotypic lymphoproliferative response in pigs vaccinated with foot-andmouth disease virus. Involvement of isolated capsid proteins. The Journal of general virology. 1992;73 (Pt 10):2601-7.
31. Delirezh N, Norian R, Azadmehr A. Changes in some pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells following foot and mouth disease vaccination. Archives of Razi Institute. 2016;71(3):199-207.
32. Amira AE-S. Evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus vaccine using cell-mediated immune parameters: faculty of veterinary; 1997.
33. Olfat EN, Samir SS, Manal A, Soad MS, Daoud AM. Studies on cell mediated immune response of Goats vaccinated with Goat pox vaccine. Vet Med Zag zagreb2002.
34. Nfon CK, Marszal P, Zhang S, Weingartl HM. Innate Immune Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus in Goats. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(4):e1623.
35. Reed LJ, Muench H. A SIMPLE METHOD OF ESTIMATING FIFTY PER CENT ENDPOINTS12. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1938;27(3):493-7.
36. Babiuk S, Bowden TR, Boyle DB, Wallace DB, Kitching RP. Capripoxviruses: An Emerging Worldwide Threat to Sheep, Goats and Cattle. Transboundary and emerging diseases. 2008;55(7):26372.
37. Gari G, Biteau-Coroller F, LeGoff C, Caufour P, Roger F. Evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the diagnosis and screening of lumpy skin disease using Bayesian method. Veterinary microbiology. 2008;129(3–4):26980.
38. Kondo T, Sugiura T, Kamada M, Imagawa H. Colorimetric Assay of Equine Peripheral Lymphocyte Blastogenesis Using MTT. Journal of Equine Science. 1996;7(3):63-6.
39. Norian R, Delirezh N, Azadmehr A. Evaluation of proliferation and cytokines production by mitogen-stimulated bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Veterinary Research Forum. 2015;6(4):265-71.
40. Katial RK, Sachanandani D, Pinney C, Lieberman MM. Cytokine production in cell culture by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from immunocompetent hosts. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology. 1998;5(1):78-81.
41. Norian R, Delirezh N, Azadmehr A. Evaluation of proliferation and cytokines production by mitogen-stimulated bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Veterinary research forum : an international quarterly journal. 2015;6(4):265-71.