1. VandeHaar MJ, St-Pierre N. Major advances in nutrition: relevance to the sustainability of the dairy industry. Journal of Dairy Science. 2006 Apr 30;89(4):1280-91.
2. Seifi HA. Production diseases in dairy herds: monitoring transition cows. In “Dairy cows: nutrition, fertility and milk production”. Nova science publishers, Inc. new York. 2011. P: 99-121.
3. Oetzel GR. Monitoring and testing dairy herds for metabolic disease. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice. 2004 Nov 1;20(3):651-74.
4. LeBlanc SJ, Lissemore KD, Kelton DF, Duffield TF, Leslie KE. Major advances in disease prevention in dairy cattle. Journal of dairy science. 2006 Apr 30;89(4):1267-79.
5. LeBlanc SJ, Lissemore KD, Kelton DF, Duffield TF, Leslie KE. Major advances in disease prevention in dairy cattle. Journal of dairy science. 2006 Apr 30;89(4):1267-79.
6. Houe H, Østergaard S, Thilsing-Hansen T, Jørgensen RJ, Larsen T, Sørensen JT, Agger JF, Blom JY. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 2001;42(1):1-29.
7. Roche JR. The incidence and control of hypocalcaemia in pasture-based systems. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. Supplementum. 2003;97:141-4.
8. Reinhardt TA, Lippolis JD, McCluskey BJ, Goff JP, Horst RL. Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy herds. The Veterinary Journal. 2011 Apr 30;188(1):122-4.
9. Goff JP. Macromineral disorders of the transition cow. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice. 2004 Nov 1;20(3):471-94.
10. Horst RL, Goff JP, Reinhardt TA. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism during lactation. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. 1997 Jul 1;2(3):253-63.
11. Whitaker DA. Use and interpretation of metabolic profiles. The Health of Dairy Cattle. 2000:89-93.
12. Goff JP. Calcium and magnesium disorders. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. 2014 Jul 31;30(2):359-81.
13. Thrall MA, Baker DC, Compbell TW, Denicola D, Fettman M, Lassen ED, Rebar A, Weiser G. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. United State of America. 2004;77.
14. Meyer DJ, Rich EH, Meyer LJ, Coles EH, Rich LJ. Veterinary laboratory medicine: interpretation and diagnosis. 1992:199-202.
15. Hunt E, Blackwelder JT. Disorders of calcium metabolism. Large animal internal medicine, 3rd edn. Mosby, St. Louis, MO. 2002:124854.
16. Seifi HA, Mohri M, Ehsani A, Hosseini E, Chamsaz M. Interpretation of bovine serum total calcium: effects of adjustment for albumin and total protein. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2005 Dec 1;14(3):155-9.
17. Goff JP. The monitoring, prevention, and treatment of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows. The Veterinary Journal. 2008 Apr 30;176(1):50-7.
18. Kimura K, Reinhardt TA, Goff JP. Parturition and hypocalcemia blunts calcium signals in immune cells of dairy cattle. Journal of dairy science. 2006 Jul 31;89(7):2588-95.
19. Ferneborg S. Calcium homeostasis at calving in cows milked prepartum. Swedish university of agricultural science, department of animal nutrition and management. 2010.
20. Horst RL, Goff JP, Reinhardt TA. Adapting to the transition between gestation and lactation: differences between rat, human and dairy cow. Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia. 2005 Apr 1;10(2):141-56.
21. DeGaris PJ, Lean IJ. Milk fever in dairy cows: A review of pathophysiology and control principles. The Veterinary Journal. 2008 Apr 30;176(1):58-69.22.
22. Schröder .B, Breves G. Mechanisms and regulation of calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract in pigs and ruminants: comparative aspects with special emphasis on hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Animal Health Research Reviews. 2006 Jun;7(1-2):31-41.
23. Holler, H., Breeves, G., Kocabatmax, M., Gredes, H. Mineral absorption across isolated rumen mucosa. Queensland Journal of Experimental Physiology. 1988. 73:609-611.
24. Khorasani GR, Janzen RA, McGill WB, Kennelly JJ. Site and extent of mineral absorption in lactating cows fed whole-crop cereal grain silage of alfalfa silage. Journal of Animal Science. 1997 Jan 1;75(1):239-48.
25. Hoorn EJ, Zietse R. Disorders of calcium and magnesium balance: a physiology-based approach. Pediatric Nephrology. 2013 Aug 1;28(8):1195-206.
26. Goff JP, Littledike ET, Horst RL. Effect of Synthetic Bovine Parathyroid Hormone in Dairy Cows: Prevention of Hypocalcemic Parturient Paresis1. Journal of Dairy Science. 1986 Sep 1;69(9):2278-89.
27. Ellenberger HB, Newlander JA, Jones CH. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of dairy cows. 2. Weekly balances through lactation and gestation periods. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of dairy cows. 2. Weekly balances through lactation and gestation periods. 1932.
28. Christakos S. Recent advances in our understanding of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2012 Jul 1;523(1):73-6.
29. Halloran BP, Barthell EN, DeLuca HF. Vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy and lactation in the rat. Proceed
ings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1979 Nov 1;76(11):5549-53.
30. Kumar R, Cohen WR, Silva P, Epstein FH. Elevated 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D plasma levels in normal human pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1979 Feb;63(2):342.
31. Toverud SU, Boass A, Haussler MR, Pike JW. Circulating levels and function of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 in lactation. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 1983 Jul 1;19(1):505-10.
32. Horst RL, Eisman JA, Jorgensen NA, DeLuca HF. Adequate response of plasma 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D to parturition in paretic (milk fever) dairy cows. Science. 1977 May 6;196(4290):662-3.
33. Venjakob PL, Borchardt S, Heuwieser W. Hypocalcemia—Cow-level prevalence and preventive strategies in German dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017 Aug 31;100(11):9258-9266.
34. Horst RL, Goff JP, Reinhardt TA. Advancing age results in reduction of intestinal and bone 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor. Endocrinology. 1990 Feb 1;126(2):1053-7.
35. Hanai H, Brennan DP, Cheng L, Goldman ME, Chorev M, Levine MA, Sacktor B, Liang CT. Downregulation of parathyroid hormone receptors in renal membranes from aged rats. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology. 1990 Sep 1;259(3):F444-50.
36. Dishington IW. Prevention of milk fever (hypocalcemic paresis puerperalis) by dietary salt supplements. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 1974 Dec;16(4):503-12.
37. Gaynor PJ, Mueller FJ, Miller JK, Ramsey N, Goff JP, Horst RL. Parturient Hypocalcemia in Jersey Cows Fed Alfalfa Haylage-Based Diets with Different Cation to Anion Ratios1. Journal of Dairy Science. 1989 Oct 1;72(10):2525-31.
38. Goff JP, Horst RL, Mueller FJ, Miller JK, Kiess GA, Dowlen HH. Addition of Chloride to a Prepartal Diet High in Cations Increases 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Response to Hypocalcemia Preventing Milk Fever1. Journal of Dairy Science. 1991 Nov 1;74(11):3863-71.
39. Phillippo M, Reid GW, Nevison IM. Parturient hypocalcaemia in dairy cows: effects of dietary acidity on plasma minerals and calciotrophic hormones. Research in Veterinary Science. 1994 May 1;56(3):303-9.
40. Seifi HA, Mohri M, Zadeh JK. Use of pre-partum urine pH to predict the risk of milk fever in dairy cows. The Veterinary Journal. 2004 May 31;167(3):281-5.
41. Martin-Tereso J, Martens H. Calcium and magnesium physiology and nutrition in relation to the prevention of milk fever and tetany (dietary management of macrominerals in preventing disease).
Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice. 2014 Nov 1;30(3):643-70.
42. Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Done SH, Gruenberg W. Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2016 Oct 25.
43. Jorgensen NA. Combating milk fever [Dairy cattle, metabolic disorders]. Journal of Dairy Science (USA). 1974;57:933– 44.
44. Reinhardt TA, Conrad HR. Mode of action of pharmacological doses of cholecalciferol during parturient hypocalcemia in dairy cows. The Journal of Nutrition. 1980 Aug 1;110(8):1589-96.
45. Grünberg W. Treatment of phosphorus balance disorders. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice. 2014 Jul 1;30(2):383-408.
46. Schnewille JT, Klooster AT, Beynen AC. High phosphorus intake depresses apparent magnesium absorption in pregnant heifers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 1994 Jan 8;71(1-5):15-21.
47. Mulligan F, O Grady L, Rice D, Doherty M. Production diseases of the transition cow: Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia. Irish Veterinary Journal. 2006 Dec 1;59(12):697.
48. NAHMS D. Part III: Reference of dairy cattle health and health management practices in the United States, 2002.
49. USA Department of Agriculture. Dairy 2014, “Dairy Cattle Management Practices in the United States. 2016.
50. Horst RL, Goff JP, McCluskey BJ. Prevalence of subclinical hypocalcemia in US dairy operations. Journal of Dairy Science. 86 (Suppl. 1), 247.
51. Oetzel GR. Minimizing hypocalcemia during early lactation. InTri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference. Fort Wayne, IN, USA: Ohio State University 2013 Apr 23 (pp. 23-32).
52. Miltenburg C. Management of peripartum dairy cows for metabolic health and immune function (DVSc. Thesis). University of Guelph. 2015.
53. Chamberlin WG. Influence of subclinical hypocalcemia on plasma biochemical parameters, liver histologic changes, and common postpartum diseases in dairy cows. University of Missouri-Columbia; 2011.
54. Martinez N, Risco CA, Lima FS, Bisinotto RS, Greco LF, Ribeiro ES, Maunsell F, Galvão K, Santos JE. Evaluation of peripartal calcium status, energetic profile, and neutrophil function in dairy cows at low or high risk of developing uterine disease. Journal of Dairy Science. 2012 Dec 31;95(12):7158-72.
55. Curtis CR, Erb HN, Sniffen CJ, Smith RD, Powers PA, Smith MC, White ME, Hillman RB, Pearson EJ. Association of parturient hypocalcemia with eight periparturient disorders in Holstein cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1983 Sep;183(5):559-61.
56. Seifi HA, LeBlanc SJ, Leslie KE, Duffield TF. Metabolic predictors of post-partum disease and culling risk in dairy cattle. The Veterinary Journal. 2011 May 31;188(2):216-20.
57. Goff JP. Transition cow immune function and interaction with metabolic diseases. In Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference 2008 Apr 22 (pp. 45-57).
58. Galvão KN. Association between immune function and development of uterine disease in dairy cows. Animal Reproduction. 2012 Jul 1;9(3):318-22.
59. Duffield T. Impact of subclinical metabolic disease on risk of early lactation culling. Journal of Dairy Science. 2005;88(1):199-abstr.
60. Wyle FA, Kent JR. Immunosuppression by sex steroid hormones. The effect upon PHA-and PPD-stimulated lymphocytes. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 1977 Mar;27(3):407.
61. Franklin ST, Young JW, Nonnecke BJ. Effects of Ketones, Acetate, Butyrate, and Glucose on Bovine Lymphocyte Proliferation1, 2. Journal of Dairy Science. 1991 Aug 1;74(8):2507-14.
62. Martinez N, Sinedino LD, Bisinotto RS, Ribeiro ES, Gomes GC, Lima FS, Greco LF, Risco CA, Galvão KN, Taylor-Rodriguez D, Driver JP. Effect of induced subclinical hypocalcemia on physiological responses and neutrophil function in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2014 Feb 28;97(2):87487.
63. Gallo EM, Cante-Barrett K, Crabtree GR. Lymphocyte calcium signaling from membrane to nucleus. Nature Immunology. 2006 Jan 1;7(1):25-32.
64. Hansen SS, Nørgaard P, Pedersen C, Jørgensen RJ, Mellau LS, Enemark JD. The effect of subclinical hypocalcaemia induced by Na2EDTA on the feed intake and chewing activity of dairy cows. Veterinary Research Communications. 2003 Apr 1;27(3):193-205.
65. Daniel RC. Motility of the rumen and abomasum during hypocalcaemia. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine. 1983 Jul;47(3):276.
66. Jørgensen RJ, Nyengaard NR, Hara S, Enemark JM, Andersen PH. Rumen motility during induced hyper-and hypocalcaemia. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 1998;39(3):331-8.
67. Caixeta LS, Ospina PA, Capel MB, Nydam DV. The association of subclinical hypocalcemia, negative energy balance and disease with bodyweight change during the first 30 days post-partum in dairy cows milked with automatic milking systems. The Veterinary Journal. 2015 May 31;204(2):150-6.
68. Rodriguez EM, Aris A, Bach A. Associations between subclinical hypocalcemia and postparturient diseases in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017 Sep 1;100(9):7427-34.
69. Zemel MB. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004 May 1;79(5):907S-12S.
70. Xue B, Greenberg AG, Kraemer FB, Zemel MB. Mechanism of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+] i) inhibition of lipolysis in human adipocytes. The FASEB Journal. 2001 Nov 1;15(13):2527-9.
71. Chapinal N, Carson M, Duffield TF, Capel M, Godden S, Overton M, Santos JE, LeBlanc SJ. The association of serum metabolites with clinical disease during the transition period. Journal of Dairy Science. 2011 Oct 31;94(10):4897-903.
72. Massey CD, Wang CH, Donovan GA, Beede DK. Hypocalcemia at parturition as a risk factor for left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1993 Sep;203(6):852-3.
73. Doll K, Sickinger M, Seeger T. New aspects in the pathogenesis of abomasal displacement. The Veterinary Journal. 2009 Aug 31;181(2):90-6.
74. Madison JB, Troutt HF. Effects of hypocalcaemia on abomasal motility. Research in Veterinary Science. 1988 Mar;44(2):264-6.
75. LeBlanc SJ, Leslie KE, Duffield TF. Metabolic predictors of displaced abomasum in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 2005 Jan 31;88(1):159-70.
76. Erb HN, Smith RD, Oltenacu PA, Guard CL, Hillman RB, Powers PA, Smith MC, White ME. Path Model of Reproductive Disorders and Performance, Milk Fever, Mastitis, Milk Yield, and Culling in Holstein Cows1. Journal of Dairy Science. 1985 Dec 1;68(12):3337-49.
77. Correa MT, Erb H, Scarlett J. Path analysis for seven postpartum disorders of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 1993 May 1;76(5):1305-12.
78. Seifi HA, Dalir-Naghadeh B, Farzaneh N, Mohri M, Gorji-Dooz M. Metabolic changes in cows with or without retained fetal membranes in transition period. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2007 Mar 1;54(2):92-7.
79. Risco CA, Drost M, Thatcher WW, Savio J, Thatcher MJ.
Effects of calving-related disorders on prostaglandin, calcium, ovarian activity and uterine involution in postrartum dairy cows. Theriogenology. 1994 Dec 31;42(1):183-203.
80. Risco CA, Reynolds JP, Hird D. Uterine prolapse and hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1984 Dec;185(12):1517-9.
81. Melendez P, Donovan GA, Risco CA, Goff JP. Plasma mineral and energy metabolite concentrations in dairy cows fed an anionic prepartum diet that did or did not have retained fetal membranes after parturition. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2004 Aug 1;65(8):1071-6.
82. Goff JP, Horst RL. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders1, 2. Journal of Dairy Science. 1997 Jul 1;80(7):12608.
83. Murray R. RD Murray, JE Horsfield, WD McCormick, HJ Williams, D. Ward. The Veterinary Record. 2008 Nov 8;163:561-5.
84. Whiteford LC, Sheldon IM. Association between clinical hypocalcaemia and postpartum endometritis. Veterinary Record. 2005 Aug 13;157(7):202.
85. Goff J. Managing the transition cow-Considerations for optimising energy and protein balance, and immune function. Cattle Practice. 2003 Apr 1;11:51-63.
86. Borsberry S, Dobson H. Periparturient diseases and their effect on reproductive performance in five dairy herds.The Veterinary Record. 1989 Mar;124(9):217-9.
87. Chamberlin WG, Middleton JR, Spain JN, Johnson GC, Ellersieck MR, Pithua P. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2013 Nov 30;96(11):7001-13.
88. Jonsson NN, Daniel RC. Effects of hypocalcaemia on blood flow to the ovaries of the sheep. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 1997 Feb 12;44(1-10):281-7.
89. Ribeiro ES, Lima FS, Greco LF, Bisinotto RS, Monteiro AP, Favoreto M, Ayres H, Marsola RS, Martinez N, Thatcher WW, Santos JE. Prevalence of periparturient diseases and effects on fertility of seasonally calving grazing dairy cows supplemented with concentrates. Journal of Dairy Science. 2013 Sep 30;96(9):5682-97.
90. Caixeta LS, Ospina PA, Capel MB, Nydam DV. Association between subclinical hypocalcemia in the first 3 days of lactation and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology. 2017 May 31;94:1-7.
91. Chapinal N, Carson ME, LeBlanc SJ, Leslie KE, Godden S, Capel M, Santos JE, Overton MW, Duffield TF. The association of serum metabolites in the transition period with milk production and early-lactation reproductive performance. Journal of Dairy science. 2012 Mar 31;95(3):1301-9.
92. Kamgarpour R, Daniel RC, Fenwick DC, McGuigan K, Murphy G. Post partum Subclinical Hypocalcaemia and Effects on Ovarian Function and Uterine Involution in a Dairy Herd. The Veterinary Journal. 1999 Jul 1;158(1):59-67.
93. Roberts T, Chapinal N, LeBlanc SJ, Kelton DF, Dubuc J, Duffield TF. Metabolic parameters in transition cows as indicators for early-lactation culling risk. Journal of Dairy Science. 2012 Jun 30;95(6):305763.
94. Seifi HA, Mohri M, Farzaneh N, Nemati H, Nejhad SV. Effects of anionic salts supplementation on blood pH and mineral status, energy metabolism, reproduction and production in transition dairy cows. Research in Veterinary Science. 2010 Aug 31;89(1):72-7.
95. Hutjens M. An Alternate to Metabolic Disorders: Looking at Hypocalcaemia, Dairy Decision Column. University of Illinois, Urbana. 2003 Feb;18.
96. Rajala-Schultz PJ, Gröhn YT, McCulloch CE. Effects of milk fever, ketosis, and lameness on milk yield in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 1999 Feb 1;82(2):288-94.
97. Østergaard S, Larsen T. Associations between blood calcium status at calving and milk yield in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2000 Nov 1;83(11):2438-40.
98. Hunter AL. Association of Serum Calcium Status at Calving on Survival, Health, and Performance of Post-partum Holstein Cows and Calves (Doctoral dissertation), The Ohio State University. 2015.
99. Wilhelm AL, Maquivar MG, Bas S, Brick TA, Weiss WP, Bothe H, Velez JS, Schuenemann GM. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017 Apr 30;100(4):3059-67.
100. Van Saun RJ. Metabolic profiles for evaluation of the transition period. Proceedings of American Association of Bovine Practitioners. 2006;39:130-8.
101. Neves RC, Leno BM, Stokol T, Overton TR, McArt JA. Risk factors associated with postpartum subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2017 May 31;100(5):3796-804.
102. Van Saun RJ. Blood profiles as indicators of nutritional status. InProc. 18th Annu. Western Canadian Dairy Seminar. Red Deer Alberta, Canada 2000 Mar 1 (pp. 1-6).
103. Oetzel GR. Effect of calcium chloride gel treatment in dairy cows on incidence of periparturient diseases. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1996 Sep;209(5):958-61. 5