Effect of thiamine and vitamin C on tissue lead accumulation following experimental lead poisoning in Cyprinus carpio

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad"


The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible ameliorative effects of vitamin C and thiamine on lead accumulation in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and gill of experimentally lead-poisoned common carp. At the beginning of the experiment, fish (n=120) were divided into 4 groups randomly with group 1 being considered as the control group. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to lead acetate (5 mg/L, 15 days); groups 3 and 4 received vitamin C (500 mg/kg feed) and thiamine (50 mg/kg feed) during lead acetate exposure, respectively. Following this, it was observed that lead exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lead content in all examined tissues of fish in group 2 in comparison to control group. It was also found that thiamine supplementation slight
ly decreased the augmented levels of lead in the muscle, brain and gill tissues, which was not significantly different from that of the control group. Similarly, vitamin C supplementation reduced the augmented concentrations of lead in the muscle to the levels that were not significantly different from that of the control group. Based on the present results, neither thiamine nor vitamin C was effective in providing a significant reduction of tissue lead burden in groups 3 and 4 as compared to group 2. Thus, monotherapy with such vitamins cannot be proposed as a suitable therapeutic approach for the effective reduction of the tissue lead burden in common carp. However, further investigations using other dosing regimens of each vitamin or combined treatment with chelators are required to reach such a conclusion.


Hsu PC , Guo YL. Antioxidant nutrients and lead toxicity. Toxicology. 2002;180:33-44.
Marchlewicz M, Michalska T, Wiszniewska B. Detection of lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat epididymis by chemiluminescence. Chemosphere. 2004;57:1553–62.
Tao S, Liang T, Cao J, Dawson RW, Liu C. Synergistic effect of copper and lead uptake by Fish. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1999;44:190-5.
Martinez CB, Nagae MY, Zaia CT, Zaia DA. Acute morphological and physiological effects of lead in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Braz J Biol. 2004;64(4):797-807.
Rogers JT, Wood CM. Characterization of branchial lead–calcium interaction in the freshwater rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:813-25.
Al-Saleh I, Shinwari N. Preliminary report on the levels of elements in four fish species from the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia. Chemosphere. 2002;48:749–55.
Erdogan Z, Erdogan S, Aksu T, Baytok E. The effects of dietary lead exposure and ascorbic acid on performance, lipid peroxidation status and biochemical parameters of broilers. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2005;29:1053-9.
Jezierska B, Witeska M. The metal uptake and accumulation in fish living in polluted waters. Soil and Water Pollution Monitoring, Protection and Remediation. NATO science series. 2006; 69: pp 107-114.
Patrick L. Lead Toxicity Part II: The Role of Free Radical Damage and the Use of Antioxidants in the Pathology and Treatment of Lead Toxicity. Altern Med Rev. 2006;11(2):114-27.
El-Nekeety AA, El-Kady AA, Soliman MS, Hassan NS, Abdel-Wahhab MA. Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris (L.) against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2209–15.
Bhatkar NV. Chromium, Nickel and Zinc Induced Histopathological Alterations in the Liver of Indian Common Carp Labeo rohita (Ham.). J Appl Sci Environ Manage. 2011;15(2):331 - 6.
Gurer H, Ercal N. Can antioxidants be beneficial in the treatment of lead poisoning? Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(10):927-45.
Najarnezhad V, Aslani MR, Balali-Mood M. The therapeutic potential of thiamine for treatment of experimentally induced subacute lead poisoning in sheep. Comp Clin Pathol. 2010;19:69-73.
Mudipalli A. lead hepatotoxicity and potential health effects. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126:518-27.
Kalia K, Flora SJ. Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning. J Occup Health. 2005;47:127.
Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2012;5(2):47-58.
Flora SJ, Pande M, Mehta A. Beneficial effect of combined administration of some naturally occurring antioxidants (vitamins) and thiol chelators in the treatment of chronic lead intoxication. Chem Biol Interact. 2003;145:267-80.
Vij AG, Satija NK, Flora SJ. Lead-induced disorders in hematopoietic and drug metabolizing enzyme systemand their protection by ascorbic acid supplementation. Biomed Environ Sci. 1998;11:7-14.
Kargin F, Cogun HY. Metal interactions during accumulation and elimination of zinc and cadmium in tissues of the fresh water fish, Tilapia nilotica. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1999;63:511-9.
Tao S, Liu C, Dawson R, Cao J, Li B. Uptake of particulate lead via the gills of fish (Carassius auratus). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1999;37:352-7.
Varanasi U, Gmur DJ. Influence of waterborne and dietary calcium on uptake and retention of lead by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1978;46:65-75.
Vinodhini R, Narayanan M. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp). Int J Environ Sci Tech. 2008;5(2):179-82.
Kalay M, Canli M. Elimination of Essential (Cu, Zn) and Non-Essential (Cd, Pb) Metals from Tissues of a Freshwater Fish Tilapia zilli. Turk J Zool. 2000;24:429-36.
24. Meldrum JB, Ko KW. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid of tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64:672–6.
25. Kim JS, Hamilton DL, Blakley BR, Roussraux CG. The effect of thiamin on lead metabolism: organ distribution of lead. Can J Vet Res. 1992;56:256-9.
26. Mirmazloomi S, Shahsavani D, Baghshani H. Studies on the protective effects of ascorbic acid and thiamine on lead-induced lipid and protein oxidation as well as enzymatic alterations in some tissues of Cyprinus carpio. Comp Clin Pathol. 2015;24:1231-6.
27. Coppock RW, Wagner WC, Reynolds JD, Vogel RS, Gelberg HB, Florence LZ, Wolff WA. Evaluation of edentate and thiamine for treatment of experimentally induced environmental lead poisoning in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 1991;52:1860–5.
28. Maiti SK, Swarup D, Chandra SV. Therapeutic potential of thiamine hydrochloride in experimental chronic lead intoxication in goats. Res Vet Sci. 1990;48:377-8.
29. Ghazaly KS. Influences of thiamin on lead intoxication, lead deposition in tissues and lead hematological responses of Tilapia zillii. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1991;100 (3):417-21.
30. Dhawan M, Kachru DN, Tandon SK. Influence of thiamine and ascorbic acid supplementation
44IJVST 2017; VOLUME 9; NUMBER 1Shahsavani/Baghshani/Nourian 44
on the antidotal efficacy of thiol chelators in experimental lead intoxication. Archives of Toxicology. 1988;62(4):301-4.
31. Patra RC, Rautray AK, Swarup D. Oxidative stress in lead and cadmium toxicity and its amelioration. Vet Med Int. 2011;45:723-7.
32. Ihnat M, Miller HJ. Analysis of food for arsenic and selenium by acid digestion, hydride evolution atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1977;60:813