Necrotic ulcerative dermatitis due to simultaneous infections of Malassezia and Microsporum gallinae in a pigeon (Columba livia domestica)

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Abstract

A homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica) was referred with the presence of ulceration, bleeding, loss of feathers and scabs and crust in the head. Mycological evaluation was shown simultaneous infections by Malassezia and Microsporum gallinae. Pathological findings revealed severe and deep necrotic skin lesions associated with fungal hyphae and especially numerous yeasts. It was concluded that keratinophilic fungi, especially dermatophytes in skin and feathers of birds can cause severe lesions and be a potential source of spread of disease in the human population and animals. It also suggests considering the role of Malassezia spp. as a risk factor in the development of skin lesions and the emergence and exacerbation of infections such as dermatophytes.

Keywords


Baudet, E. (1943) Dermatomycosis in a dog produced by 10 Microsporum (Achorion) gallinae. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 102, 383-384.
Brasao, S.C., Gomes, D.O., Ramos, G.B., Ciuffa, A.Z., Nascimento, L.R., Lima, A.M.C. and Santos, A.L.Q. (2015) Malassezia spp detected at the edge of the eye of a White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma, statius muller, 1776) - A Case report. Bioscience Journal 31(4), 1159-1163.
Chermette, R., Ferreiro, L. and Guillot, J. (2008) Dermatophytoses in animals. Mycopathologia 166(5-6), 385-405.
Dahlhausen, R.D. (2005) Implication of mycoses in clinical disorders. In: Harrison, G.J., and Lightfoot, T.L., eds. Clinical Avian Medicine.Vol. II, Spix Publishing, 691-704.
Dvorak, J. and Otcenasek, M. (1964) Geophilic, zoophilic and anthropophilic dermatophytes. A review. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata 23, 294-296.
Georg, L.K., Ajello, L., Friedman, L. and Brinkman, S.A. (1962) A new species of 13 Microsporum pathogenic to man and animals. Sabouraudia1,189-196.
Goodenough, A.E. and Stallwood. B. (2010) Intraspecific variation and interspecific differences in the bacterial and fungal assemblages of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) nests. Microbial Ecology 59(2), 221-232.
Gordon, M.A. andLittle, G.N. (1968) Trichophyton (Microsporum?) gallinae ringworm in a monkey. Sabouraudia 6(3), 207-212.
Gungnani, H.C., Sharma, S. and Gupta, B. (2012) Keratinophilic fungi recovered from feathers of different species of birds in St Kitts and Nevis. West Indian Medical Journal 61(9), 912-915.
Komarek, J. and Wurst, Z. (1989) Dermatophytes in clinically healthy dogs and 12 cats. Veterinary Medicine (Praha)34(1), 59-63 [in Czech].
Korting, H.C. and Zienicke, H. (1990) Dermatophytoses as occupational dermatoses in industrialized countries. Report on two cases from Munich. Mycoses 33(2), 86-89.
Miljkovic, B., Pavlovski, Z., Jovicic, D., Radanovic O. and Kureljusic B. (2011) Fungi on feathers of common clinically healthy birds in Belgrade. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 27(1), 45-54.
Miyasato, H., Yamaguchi, S., Taira, K., Hosokawa, A., Kayo, S., Sano, A., Uezato, H. and Takahashi, K. (2011) Tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae: the first clinical case in Japan. Journal of Dermatology 38(5), 473- 478.
Murata, M., Takahashi, H., Takahashi, S., Takahashi, Y., Chibana, H., Murata, Y., Sugiyama, K., Kaneshima, T., Yamaguchi, S., Miyasato, H., Murakami, M., Kano, R., Hasegawa, A., Uezato, H., Hosokawa, A. and Sano, A.(2013) Isolation of Microsporum gallinae from a fighting cock (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Japan. Medical Mycology 51(2), 144-149.
Ritchie, B.W., Harrison, G.J. and Harrison, L.R. (1994) Mycoses. In: Bauck L. (eds), Avian Medicine: Principles and application, 997-1006.
Schmidt, R.E. and Lightfoot, T.L. (2005) Integument. In: Harrison, G.J. and Lightfoot, T.L., eds. Clinical Avian Medicine.Vol. I, Spix Publishing, 395-410.
Schmidt, R.E., Reavill, D.R. and Phalen, D.N. (2015) Pathology of Pet and Aviary Birds, 2nd ed. Wiley Blackwell,Iowa State Press, 179-180.
Shivaprasad, H.L. (2008) Integumentary system. In: Fletcher, O.J., Abdul-Aziz, T., eds. Avian histopathology, 3rd ed. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Omni Press, 392-402.
Takahashi, Y., Sano, A., Takizawa, K., Fukushima, K., Miyaji, M. and Nishimura, K. (2003) The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 44(1), 31-38.
Tudor, D.C. (1983) Mycotic infections of feathers as a cause of feather pulling in pigeons and psittacine birds. Veterinary Medicineand Small Animal Clinician 78, 249-253.