Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in companion rabbits of Ahvaz district, South-West of Iran

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

Abstract

Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic protozoon, found in the small intestine of humans and mammals. There is very little information available regarding rabbits infected with Giardia in Iran. The objective of the present study is to detect Giardia duodenalis antigen in companion rabbits of the Ahvaz district, South-West of Iran. A total of 58 fecal samples of companion rabbits that had been collected during January 2011 to December 2014 were submitted to the parasitology laboratory of the Veterinary Faculty for Giardia duodenalis testing by two techniques: centrifugation-flotation and a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit (BVT Co., Ltd, Lion, France) by immunochromatography assay (ICA). The studied rabbits were categorized into two age groups (less than 1 year old and above or equal to 1 year old), four season. In addition, they were categorized into two other groups based on the stool sample status (diarrheic and non-diarrheic). Five out of fifty eight fecal samples (8.62%) were positive for antigen of Giardia duodenalis by ICA. Prevalence was
significantly higher in diarrheic rabbits (45.45%; 5 out of 11) than non-diarrheic rabbits (0%; 0 out of 47) (P=0.002). The infection had more prevalence in rabbits older than 1 year (9.09%; 3 out of 33) compared with young rabbits that were less than 1 year old (8%; 2 out of 25). Nevertheless, the difference was not significant. Prevalence was higher in male rabbits (9.52%; 2 out of 21) compared with female rabbits (8.11%; 3 out of 37) and in the season of autumn (15.38%; 2 out of 13), but without a significant difference between the prevalence of infection relative to host gender and season. Microscopy examination on fecal samples showed that 5.17% (3 out of 58) were positive. For greater certainty, three stool samples were collected from each animal at 48 hour intervals. The results indicated that the Giardia antigen was present as a zoonotic disease in rabbits of the Ahvaz district. The obtained data showed that more sensitive techniques such as ICA may be necessary and yield more reliable results in the detection of low levels of Giardia in fecal samples.

Keywords


Adam, R.D. (2001) Biology of Giardia Lamblia. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14, 447-475.
Barr, S.C. (2012) Enteric protozoal infections: Giardiasis. In: Greene CE (Ed.): Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat, (4th Edn.). Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., pp 785-790.
Dryden, M.W., Payne, P.A. and Smith, V. (2006) Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures. Veterinary Therapeutics 7, 4-14.
Epe, C., Coati, N. and Schnieder, T. (2004) Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 111, 243-247.
Geurden, T., Berkvens, D., Casaert, S., Vercruysse, J. and Claerebout, E. (2008) A Bayesian evaluation of three diagnostic assays for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. Veterinary Parasitology 157, 14-20.
Jenkins, M.C., O’Brien, C.N., Macarisin, D., Miska, K., Fetterer, R. and Fayer, R. (2012) Analysis of giardin expression during encystation of Giardia lamblia. The Journal of Parasitology 98, 1266-1270.
Karim, M.R., Wang, R., Yu, F., Li, T., Dong, H., Li, D., Zhang, L., Li, J., Jian, F., Zhang, S., Rume, F.I., Ning, C. and Xiao, L. (2015) Multi-locus analysis of Giardia duodenalis from nonhuman primates kept in zoos in China: geographical segregation and host-adaptation of assemblage B isolates. Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases 30, 82-88.
Lebbad, M., Mattsson, J.G., Christensson, B., Ljungstr, M.B., Backhans, A. and Andersson, J.O. (2010) From mouse to moose: Multilocus genotyping of Giardia isolates from various animal species. Veterinary Parasitology 168, 231-239.
Levecke, B., Meulemans, L., Dalemans, T., Casaert, S., Claerebout, E. and Geurden, T. (2011) Mixed Giardia duodenalis assemblage A, B, C and E infections in pet chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) in Flanders (Belgium). Veterinary Parasitology 177, 166-170.
Monis, P.T., Cacci, S.M. and Thompson, R.C. (2009) Variation in Giardia: towards a taxonomic revision of the genus. Trends in Parasitology 25, 93-100.
Mundim, M.J., Rosa, L.A., Hortencio, S.M., Faria, E.S., Rodrigues, R.M. and Cury, M.C. (2007) Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs from different living conditions in Uberlândia, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology 144, 356-359.
Pantchev, N., Broglia, A., Paoletti, B., Globokar Vrhovec, M., Bertram, A., Nockler, K. and Caccio, S.M. (2014) Occurrence and molecular typing of Giardia isolates in pet rabbits, chinchillas, guinea pigs and ferrets collected in Europe during 2006-2012. The Veterinary Record 175, 18.
Pantchev, N., Globokar Vrhovec, M. and Beck, W. (2005) Endoparasites from indoor kept small mammals and hedgehogs. Laboratory evaluation of fecal, serological, and urinary samples (2002–2004). Tierarztliche Praxis 4, 296-306.
Read, C., Walters, J., Robertson, I.D. and Thompson, R.C. (2002) Correlation between genotype of Giardia duodenalis and diarrhoea. International Journal for Parasitology 32, 229–231.
Sadaka, H.A., Gaafar, M.R., Mady, R.F. and Hezema, N.N. (2015) Evaluation of ImmunoCard STAT test and ELISA versus light microscopy in diagnosis of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis. Parasitology Research 1.
Soliman, R.H., Fuentes, I. and Rubio, J.M. (2011) Identification of a novel Assemblage B subgenotype and a zoonotic Assemblage C in human isolates of Giardia intestinalis in Egypt. Parasitology International 60, 507-511.
Takumi, K., Swart, A., Mank, T., Lasek-Nessel Quist, E., Lebbad, M., Cacci, S.M. and Sprong, H. (2012) Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure. Parasites and Vectors 10, 168.
Thompson, R.C., Hopkins, R.M. and Homan, W.L. (2000) Nomenclature and genetic groupings of Giardia infecting mammals. Parasitology Today 16, 210-213.
Zhang, W., Shen, Y., Wang, R., Liu, A., Ling, H., Li, Y., Cao, J., Zhang, X., Shu, J. and Zhang, L. (2012) Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission. PLoS One 7, e31262.