Antioxidant activity of Echinophora platyloba DC essential oil: a comparative study on four different methods

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

2 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences


The present study is conducted in order to investigate the antioxidant capacity of Echinophora platyloba DC (Duncan) essential oil (EO), growing wild in west Azerbaijan, Iran, with four different assays. The aerial parts of Echinophora platyloba DC were provided from Maraghe city district, northwest of Iran and its phytochemicals were determined using GC-MS analysis. In order to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity of the EO, various concentrations (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 of the oil and reference antioxidants (ascorbic acid and BHT) were analyzed by four different assays such as 2,2’-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene bleaching test (BCBT). The oil exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with a dose-response in DPPH and ABTS assays and it
exhibited strong antioxidant activity in FRAP and BCBT assays. It is concluded that FRAP and BCBT assays are more suitable spectrometric assays for antioxidant capacity evaluation of Echinophora platyloba.


Main Subjects

Ahmad, V.U., Jassbi, A.R., Pannahi, M.S.C. (1999). Analysis of the essential oil of Echinophora sibthorpiana Guss. by means of GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR techniques. Journal of Essential Oil Research 11, 107-108.
Aliakbarlu, J., Sadaghiani, S.K., Mohammadi, S. (2013). Comparative evaluation of antioxidant and anti food-borne bacterial activities of essential oils from some spices commonly consumed in Iran. Food Science and Biotechnology 22, 1487-1493.
Ani, V., Varadaraj, M., Naidu, K.A. (2006). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenolic compounds from bitter cumin (Cuminum nigrum L.). European Food Research and Technology 224, 109-115.
Benzie, I.F. (1996). An automated, specific, spectrophotometric method for measuring ascorbic acid in plasma (EFTSA). Clinical Biochemistry 29, 111-116.
Bhatt, I.D., Dauthal, P., Rawat, S., Gaira, K.S., Jugran, A., Rawal, R.S. and Dhar, U. (2012). Characterization of essential oil composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant properties in wild and planted individuals of Valeriana jatamansi Jones. Scientia Horticulturae 136, 61-68.
Erkan, N., Ayranci, G., Ayranci, E. (2008). Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chemistry 110, 76-82.
Floegel, A., Kim, D.-O., Chung, S.-J., Koo, S.I., Chun, O.K. (2011). Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24, 1043-1048.
Hashemi, M., Ehsani, A., Afshari, A., Aminzare, M. and Raeisi, M. (2016). Chemical Composition and Antifungal Effect of Echinophora platyloba Essential Oil against Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Chemical Health Risks 6, 91-97.
Koleva, I.I., van Beek, T.A., Linssen, J.P., Groot, A.d., Evstatieva, L.N. (2002). Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochemical Analysis 13, 8-17.
Kulisic, T., Radonic, A., Katalinic, V., Milos, M., (2004). Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of oregano essential oil. Food Chemistry 85, 633-640.
Miliauskas, G., Venskutonis, P., Van Beek, T. (2004). Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chemistry 85, 231-237.
Miraliakbari, H., Shahidi, F. (2008). Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils. Food Chemistry 111, 421-427.
Moradi, M., Hassani, A., Ehsani, A., Hashemi, M., Raeisi, M., Naghibi, S. (2014). Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile Growing Wild in Kurdistan Province of Iran. Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control 1, 120-124.
Ou, B., Huang, D., Hampsch-Woodill,
M., Flanagan, J.A., Deemer, E.K. (2002). Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 3122-3128.
Pirbalouti, A.G., Setayesh, M., Siahpoosh, A. and Mashayekhi, H. (2013). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of three herbs used as condiments and additives in pickles products. Herba Polonica 59, 51-62.
Pisoschi, A.M. and Negulescu, G.P. (2012). Methods for total antioxidant activity determination: a review. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry 1, 106.
Pisoschi, A.M., Cheregi, M.C., and Danet, A.F. (2009) Total antioxidant capacity of some commercial fruit juices: electrochemical and spectrophotometrical approaches. Molecules 14, 480-493.
Prakash, B., Singh, P., Kedia, A., Dubey, N. (2012). Assessment of some essential oils as food preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activities and in vivo efficacy in food system. Food Research International 49, 201-208.
Rohani, S.M.R., Moradi, M., Mehdizadeh, T., Saei-Dehkordi, S.S., Griffiths, M.W. (2011). The effect of nisin and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil separately and in combination on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. LWT-Food Science and Technology 44, 2260-2265.
Ruberto, G., Baratta, M.T. (2000). Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems. Food Chemistry 69, 167174.
Saei-Dehkordi, S.S., Tajik, H., Moradi, M., Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. (2010). Chemical composition of essential oils in Zataria multiflora Boiss. from different parts of Iran and their radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 1562-1567.
Saei‐Dehkordi, S.S., Fallah, A.A., SaeiDehkordi, S.S., Kousha, S. (2012). Chemical Composition and Antioxidative Activity of Echinophora platyloba DC Essential Oil, and Its Interaction with Natural Antimicrobials against Food‐Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Organisms. Journal of Food Science 77, M631-M637.
Sharafati-chaleshtori, R., Rafieian-kopaei, M., Mortezaei, S., Sharafati-chaleshtori, A., Amini, E. (2012). Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Echinophora platyloba DC. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6, 2692-2695.
Thaipong, K., Boonprakob, U., Crosby, K., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., Byrne, D.H. (2006). Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19, 669-675.
Wong, C.C., Li, H.B., Chen, K.W., Chen, F. (2006). A systematic survey of antioxidant activity of 30 Chinese medicinal plants using the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Food Chemistry 97,705–11.
Ye, C.-L., Dai, D.-H., Hu, W.-L. (2013). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from onion (Allium cepa L.). Food Control 30, 48-53.
Zeng, L.-B., Zhang, Z.-R., Luo, Z.-H., Zhu, J.-X. (2011). Antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of essential oil and extracts of Rhizoma HomalomenaE. Food Chemistry 125, 456-463.