Effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth, total antioxidant activity and morphology of the intestine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 University of Tabriz

2 Urmia University

3 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

4 Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

Abstract

For many years it was believed that extremely lowfrequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) do not have any significant biological effects. In this study, the influence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the growth performance, serum antioxidant power and gastrointestinal structure of rainbow trout were evaluated. Rainbow trout (17-18 g) were exposed to electromagnetic fields (15 Hz) at the range of 1 h daily and 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT, for a period of 60 days. Growth performance of the trout improved in different treatment groups especially at 0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 µT. Serum total antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced with different doses of electromagnetic induction at 0.5, 5 and 50 µT. Meanwhile, higher density of goblet cells per villus in fish intestines and pyloric caeca at 0.5 µT induction was observed. These results indicate that application of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields with a frequency of 15 Hz and induction of more than 0.5 µT might improve the growth performance, total antioxidant power and gastrointestinal structure in rainbow trout.

Keywords


Akdag, M.Z., Bilgin, M.H., Dasdag, S. and Tumer, C. (2007) Alternation of nitric oxide production in rats exposed to a prolonged, extremely low-frequency magnetic field. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 26, 99-106.
Cetin, N., Bilgili, A. and Eraslan, G. (2006) Effects of pulsed magnetic field chronic exposure on some hematological parameters in mice. Revue de Medicine Veterinaire 157, 68-71.
Cuppen, J.J.M., Wiegertjes, G.F., Lobee, H.W.J., Savelkoul, H.F.J., Elmusharaf, M.A., Beynen, A.C., Grooten, H.N.A. and Smink, W. (2007) Immune stimulation in fish and chicken through weak low frequency electromagnetic fields. Environmentalist 25, 577-583.
Di Carlo, A.L., White, N.C., Litovitz, T.A. (2000) Mechanical and electromagnetic induction of protection against oxidative stress. Bioelectrochemistry 53, 87–95.
Gerardi, G., De Ninno, A., Prosdocimi, M, Ferrari, V, Barbaro, F, Mazzariol, S, Bernardini, D. and Talpo, G. (2008) Effects of electromagnetic fields of low frequency and low intensity on rat metabolism. Biomagnetic Research and Technology 6, 1-8.
Gobba, F., Bargellini, A., Bravo, G., Scaringi, M., Cauteruccio, L., Borella, P. (2009) Natural killer cell activity decreases in workers occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields exceeding 1 micro T. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 22, 1059-1066.
Justo, O.R., Perez, V.H., Alvarez, D.C. and Alegre, R.M. (2006) Growth of Escherichia coli under extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 134, 155-163.
Miyakoshi, J. (2006) Biological responses to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Dermatological Science 2, 23-30.
Piera, V., Rodriquez, A., Cobos, A., Torrente, M. and Cobos, P. (1992) Influence of continuous electromagnetic fields on the stage, weight and stature of chick embryo. Analytica Chemica Acta 145, 302–306.
Rodriguez, M., Petitclerc, D., Nguyen, D.H., Block, E. and Burchard, J.F. (2002) Effect of electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) on production, and levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 in lactating, pregnant cows subjected to short days. Journal of Dairy Science 85, 2843–2849.
Schüz, J., Ahlbom, A. (2008) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukaemia: A review. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 132, 202–211.
Sheikhzadeh, N., Tayefi-Nasrabadi, H., Khani Oushani, A. and Najafi Enferadi, H. 2012. Effects of Haematococcus pluvialis supplementation on antioxidant system and metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 38, 413-419.
Simko, M., Droste, S., Kriehuber, R., Weiss, D.G. (2001) Stimulation of phagocytosis in murine macrophages by 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. European Journal of Cell Biology 80, 562-566.
Simko, M., Mattsson, M.O. (2004) Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields as effectors of cellular responses in vitro: Possible immune cell activation. Journal of Cellular Biochemestry 93, 83-92.
Singh, S., Kaur, M., Khanduja, K.L and Mittal, P.K. (1999) Exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field induces changes in the antioxidant defense system and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Electro and Magnetobiology 18, 7-14.
Sul, A.R., Park, S.N. and Sul, H. (2006) Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic field on structure and function of different kinds of cell lines. Yonsei Medical Journal 47, 852-861.
Vechklang, K., Boonanuntanasarn, S., Ponchunchoovong, S., Pirarat, N. and Wanapu, C. (2011) The potential for rice wine residual as an alternative protein source in a practical diet for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at the juvenile stage. Aquaculture Nutrition 17, 685–694.
Vianale, G., Reale, M., Amerio, P., Stefanachi, M., Luzio, S.D.
and Muraro, R. (2008) Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field enhances human keratinocyte cell growth and decreases proinflammatory chemokine production. British Journal of Dermatology 158, 1189–1196.
Wei, M., Guizzetti, M. and Yost, M. (2000) Exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields and proliferation of human astrocytoma cells in vitro. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 162, 166–76.
Zwirska-Korczala, K., Adamczyk-Sowa, M., Polaniak, R., Sowa, P., Birkner, E., Drzazga, Z., Brzozowski, T. and Konturek, S.J. (2004) Influence of extremely-low-frequency magnetic field on antioxidative melatonin properties in AT478 murine squamous cell carcinoma culture. Biological Trace Element Research102, 227-243.
Zwirska-Korczala, K., Jochem, J., Adamczyk-Sowa, M., Polaniak, R., Birkner, E., Latocha., M, Pilc, K. and Suchanek, R. (2005) Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on cell proliferation, antioxidative enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes-an in vitro study. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 56, 101-108.