Skin colonization by Malassezia species in healthy neonatal calves and their dams

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,Mashhad,Iran

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess skin colonization by Malassezia species in full-term healthy newborn calves and their dams. Two hundred samples from the skins and ears of 50 neonatal calves and their dams were examined on two occasions, first and fourth weeks after birth. All of the samples were determined by cytological examination and fungal culture. The isolated yeasts were identified for Malassezia spp. using the conventional techniques based on the morphological and physiological characteristics. All the samples included in the first and fourth weeks showed typical Malassezia cells on cytological examination. Colonization with Malassezia species was obtained in 11.5% of neonatal calves and their dams. The most commonly isolated species in neonates with culture-positive results was M. pachydermatis (68.75%), followed by M. sympodialis (12.5%), M. furfur (6.25%), M. globosa (6.25%) and M. slooffiae (6.25%).The most commonly isolated species in dams with culture-positive results was M. pachydermatis (85.71%), followed by M. furfur (14.3%). This study confirms that Malassezia colonization of the skin begins at the first week of life. A high prevalence of M. pachydermatis in neonates is noted from first week. Environmental factors and maternal contact probably affect this colonization, but neonatal skin characteristics are probably important.

Keywords


Ahtonen, P., Lehtonen, O. P., Kero, P., Tunnela, E. and Havu, V. (1990): Malassezia furfur colonization of neonates in an intensive care unit. Mycoses 33, 543-547.
Ashbee, H. R., Leck, A. K., Puntis, J. W. L., Parsons, W. J. and Evans, E. G. V. (2002): Skin colonization by Malassezia in neonates and infants. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 23(4), 212-216.
Ayhan, M., Sancak, B., Karaduman, A., Arıkan, S. and Sxahin, S. (2007): Colonization of neonate skin by Malassezia species: Relationship with neonatal cephalic pustulosis. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 57, 1012-1018.
Bell, L. M., Alpert, G., Slight, P. H. and Campos, J. M. (1988): Malassezia furfur skin colonization in infancy. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 9, 151-153.
Bernier, V., Weill, F. X., Hirigoyen, V., Elleau, C., Feyler, A., Labreze, C., Sarlangue, J., Chene, G., Couprie, B. and Taieb, A. (2002): Skin Colonization by Malassezia Species in Neonates. Archives of Dermatology 138, 215-218.
Crespo, M. J., Abarca, M. L. and Cabanes, F. J. (2002): Occurrence of Malassezia spp. in horses and domestic ruminants. Mycoses 45, 333–337.
Duarte, E.R., Batista, R. D., Hahn, R. C. and Hamdan, J. S. (2003): Factors associated with the prevalence of Malassezia species in the external ears of cattle from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Medical Mycology 41(2), 137-142.
Duarte, E. R. and Hamdan, J. S. (2008): Molecular characterization of M. sympodialis and M. furfur from cattle with and without otitis. . Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 60(4), 779-785.
Duarte, E.R., Melo, M. M., Hahn, R. C. and Hamdan, J. S. (1999): Prevalence of Malassezia spp. in the ears of asymptomatic cattle and cattle with otitis in Brazil. Medical Mycology 39(3), 159-162.
Gaitanis, G., Bassukas, I. D. and Velegraki, A. (2009): The range of molecular methods for typing Malassezia. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 22, 119–125.
Gueho, E., Midgley, G. and Guillot, J. (1996): The genus Malassezia with description of four new species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 69, 337–355.
Guillot, J., Gueho, E. and Lesourd, M. (1996): Identification of Malassezia species. A practical approach. Journal of Medical Mycology 6, 103–110.
Hirai, A., Kano, R., Makimura, K., Duarte, E. R., Hamdan, J. S., Lachance, M. A., Hideyo Yamaguchi, H. and Hasegawa, A. (2004): Malassezia nana: A novel lipid-dependent yeast isolated from Animals. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 54(2), 263-266.
Koseki, S. and Takahashi, S. (1988): Serial observation on the colonization of Pityrosporum orbiculare (ovale) on the facial skin surface of newborn infants. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 29, 209-215.
Leeming, J. P., Notman, F.H. and Holland, K.T. (1989):The distribution and ecology of Malassezia furfur and cutaneous bacteria on human skin. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 67, 47-52.
Leeming, J. P., Sutton, T. M. and Fleming, P. J. (1995): Neonatal skin as a reservoir of Malassezia species. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 14,719-720.
Leyden, J. J. (1982): Bacteriology of newborn skin, pp. 167-181. In: Maibach H, Boisits EK, editors. Neonatal skin: structure and function. New York, Markel Dekker.
Mayser, P., Haze, P., Papavassilis, C., Pickel, M., Gruender, K. and Gueho, E. (1997): Differentiation of Malassezia species: selectivity of Cremophor EL, castor oil and ricinoleic acid for M. furfur. British Journal of Dermatology 137, 208–213.
Powell, D. A., Hayes, J., Durell, D. E., Miller, M. and Macron, M. J. (1987): M. furfur skin colonization of infants hospitalized in intensive care units. Journal of Pediatrics 111, 217-220.
Rapelanoro, R., Mortureux, P., Couprie, B., Maleville, J. and Taieb, A. (1996): Neonatal Malassezia furfur pustulosis. Archives of Dermatology 132, 190-193.
Ro, B. I. and Dawson, T. L. (2005): The role of sebaceous gland activity and scalp microfloral metabolism in the etiology of seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings 10, 194 –197.
Shattuck, K. E., Cochran, C. K., Zabransky, R. J., Pasarell, L., Davis, J. C. and Malloy, M. H. (1996): Colonization and infection associated with Malassezia and Candida species in a neonatal unit. Journal of Hospital Infection 34, 123-129.