Effect of cobalt nano-particles on serum biochemical and histopathological changes in liver and kidney of lambs

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

1 Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

2 Payame Noor University, Tehran

3 Faculty of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

Abstract

Cobalt is an essential co-factor in red blood cell production and function and its deficiency may produce clinical signs in sheep. Thus, present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cobalt nano-particles on serum biochemical factors and histopathological changes in liver and kidnies of lambs. Study was carried out in 3 groups of lambs (4 lambs per group). One
group of lambs was kept as control group. Second and third group respectively received cobalt nano-particles and conventional cobalt chloride suspension daily for a period 25 day.
Blood sample and then serum was collected before and at the end of study. Activity of ALT,AST, ALP and level of BUN, creatinine and vitamin B12 were measured in serum of lambs.
Tissue sections of liver and kidney were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Activity of ALT, BUN and vitamin B12 was significantly increased by cobalt nano-particles and conventional cobalt chloride. Fatty change of hepatocytes occured by conventional cobalt and granulomatous hepatitis, focal necrosis of hepatocytes and degeneration of hepatocytes by the nano cobalt was identified in liver. There were not any significant lesions and alteration in the kidnies of treated groups. Thus, cobalt nano-particles have similar effect to conventional cobalt for using in sheep with cobalt deficiency.

Keywords


Garoui el M, Fetoui H, Ayadi Makni F,Boudawara T, Zeghal N. (2011). Cobalt chloride induces hepatotoxicity in adult rats and their suckling pups. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 63(1-2), 9-15.
Grace, N.D. and West D.M. (2000). Effect of an injectable micro encapsulated Vitamin B on serum and liver vitamin B concentrations in calves. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 48, 70-73.
Gruner TM, Sedcole JR, Furlong JM, Grace ND, Williams SD, Sinclair G, Hicks JD, Sykes AR. (2004). Concurrent changes in serum vitamin B12 and methylmalonic acid during cobalt or vitamin B12 supplementation of lambs while suckling and after weaning on properties in the South Island of New Zealand considered to be cobalt-deficient. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 52(3),129-36.
Jeng HA, Swanson J. (2006). Toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles in mammalian cells. Journal of Environomental Science and Health part A, 41(12), 2699–711.(4 gh)
Kennedy D.G., Cannavan A., Molloy A., O'Harte F., Taylor S.M., Kennedy S. and Blanchflower W.J. (1990). The activity of methylmalonyl-Co A mutase (EC5.4.99.2) and methionine Synthetase (EC2.1.1.13) in the tissues of cobalt-Vitamin B deficient sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 721-32.
Kennedy S., McConnell S., Anderson H., Kennedy D.G., Young P.B. and Blanchflower W.J. (1997).Histopathologic and ultrastructural alterations of white liver disease in sheep experimentally depleted of cobalt. Veterinary Pathology 34, 575-584.
Larry, L.B. (2005). Cobalt in ruminant nutrition.In Salt Trace Miner, 37, 1-3.
Naura AS, Sharma R. (2009). Toxic effects of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride on liver and kidney in mice: Implication of oxidative stress. Drug Chemical Toxicology 32(3), 293-299.
Oberd¨orster, G., Ferin, J., Lehnert, B.E. (1994). Correlation between particle size, in vivo particle persistence and lung injury. Environ. Health Perspect 102 (Suppl. 5), 173–179.
Popov A.P., Priezzhev A.V., Lademann J., Myllylä R. (2005). TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective UV-B radiation skinprotective compound in sunscreens. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 38, 2564-70.
Sayes CM., Reed KL., Warheit DB. (2007). Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles. Toxicologgical Sciences 97(1),163–80.
Scholljegerdes E. J., Hill W. J., Purvis H. T., Voigt L. A., and Schauer C. S. (2010). Effects of Supplemental Cobalt on Nutrient Digestion and Nitrogen Balance in Lambs Fed Forage-based Diets. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 25, 74-77.
Simonsen LO., Harbak H., Bennekou P. (2012). Cobalt metabolism and toxicology-A brief update. Science of Total Environment, 15, 432,210-215.
Singh, K.K. and Chhabara A. (1995). Effect of dietary cobalt on ruminal vitamin B12 synthesis and rumen metabolites. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology 24,112-116.
Smith B. L., Reynolds G. W., Embling P. P. (1979). Effect of method of oral administration of zinc sulphate on acute
zinc toxicity in the sheep, New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 7:2, 107-110.
Smith R.M. and Osborne-White W.S. (1973) Folic acid metabolism in vitamin B deficient sheep (depletion of liver foliates). Biochemical Journal 136, 279-293.
Spano J.S., August J.R., Henderson R.A., Dumas M.B., and Groth A.H. (1983). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in healthy cats and cats with induced hepatic disease. American Journal of Veterinary Researchs 44, 2049 - 2053.
Tiffany M.E., Spears J.W., Xi L. and Horton J. (2003). Influence of dietary cobalt source and concentration on performance, vitamin B status and ruminal and plasma metabolites in growing and finishing steers. Journal of Animal Sciences 81, 3151-3159.
Turgut K., Demir C., Ok M., and Ciftci K. (1997). Pre- and postprandial total serum bile acid concentration following acute liver damage in dogs. Journal of Veterianry Medicine, Series A. 44, 25-29.
Vellema P., Moll L., Barkema H.W. and Schukken Y.H. (1997). Effect of cobalt supplementation on serum vitamin B levels, weight gain and survival rate in lambs grazing cobalt-deficient pastures. Veterinary Quarterly 19, 1-5.
Vellema P., Rutten V.P.M.G., Hoek A., Moll L.and Wentink G.H. (1996). The effect of cobalt supplementation on the immune response in vitamin B12-deficient Texel lambs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 55, 151-161.