Polydipsia/polyuria syndrome in a Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus):a case report

Document Type : Research Articles


Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


Polydipsia/polyuria syndrome is not a common manifestation in birds. Hyperglycemia was found on plasma chemistry in an African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus), which was presented with polyphagia and self mutilation symptoms. Radiography demonstrated signs of mild renalomegaly, air sac involvement which proved to be due to mycoplasma spp. infection on bactriological examination. The polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria were treated successfully by insulin regime but self mutilation around the neck was to be most consistent sign for 45 days since the bird presented to our Faculty’s clinic. The exact origin of the Polydipsia/polyuria and mild hyperglycemia remains unclear but the history of long time topical cortone therapy might be involved.


Main Subjects

Brown, S., and Sandersen, S.L.( 2005) Urinary system. p. 1249–88. In: Kahn CM, Line S, editors. The Merck veterinary manual. Non-infectious diseases of the urinary system in small animals. 9th edition. Summerset: John Wiley & Sons
Chandra, M., Singh, B., Gupta, P.P., Ahuja, S.P. and Singh, N.(1985) Clinicopathologyogical, hematological, and biochemical studies in some outbreaks of nephritis in poultry. Avian Diseases 29(3), 590–600.
Dorrestein, G.M. (1997) Physiology of the urogenital system. p. 622–5. In: Altman RB, Clubb SL, Dorrestein GM, Avian medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders
Fernandez-Repollet, E., Rowley, J. and Schwartz, A. (1987) Renal damage in gentamicin-treated lanner falcons. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association 181(11),1392–1394.
Flammer, K., Clark, C.H., Drewes, L.A., Wilson, R.C. and Fiorello-Barrett, J. (1990) Adverse effects of gentamicin in scarlet macaws and galahs. American Journal of Veterinary Researches 51(3), 404–407.
Frazier, D.L., Jones, M.P. and Orosz, S.E.( 1995) Pharmacokinetic considerations of the renal system in birds: part II. Review of drugs excreted by renal pathways. Journal of Avian Medicine Surgery 9(2),104–121.
Fudge, A.M.(1997) Avian clinical pathologyogy d hematology and chemistry. In: Altman RB, Clubb SL, DorresteinGM,et al, editors. Avian medicine and surgery. Philadelphia:WBSaunders; p. 142–57.
Lumeij, J.T.( 2000) Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of renal disorders in birds of prey. p. 169–78.
In: Lumeij JT, Remple D, Redig PT, et al, Raptor biomedicine III. Lake Worth (FL):Zoological Education Network, Inc.
Lumeij, J.T.( 1987) Plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations in response to dehydration in racing pigeons. Avian Pathology 16, 377–382.
Lumeij, J.T.( 1990) Relation of plasma calcium to total protein and albumin in African grey (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon (Amazona spp.) parrots. Avian Pathology.19, 661–667.
Lumeij, J.T. and Westerhof, I.( 1988) The use of water deprivation test for the diagnosis of apparent psychogenic polydipsia in a socially deprived African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus).Avian Pathology 17(4) ,875–878.
de Wit, M., Schoemaker, N.J., Kik, M.J. and Westerhof, I.( 2003) Hypercalcemia in Two Amazon Parrots with Malignant Lymphoma Source. Avian Diseases 47(1), 223-228.
Phalen, D.( 2000) Avian renal disorders. p. 61–8, In: Fudge AM, editor. Laboratory medicine avian and exotic pets. Philadelphia: WB Saunders
Speer, B.L.( 1997) Diseases of the urogenital system. In: Altman RB, Clubb SL, Dorrestein GM,et al, editors. Avian medicine and surgery. Philadelphia: WB Saunders;. p. 625–644.
Schoemaker, N.J., Lumeij, J.T. and Beynen, A.C.( 1997) Polyuria and polydipsia due to vitamin and mineral over supplementation of the diet of a salmon crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) and blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). Avian Pathology 26, 201–209.
Styles, D.K. and Phalen, D.N.( 1998) Clinical avian urology. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 7(2), 104–113.
Vantoor, A.J., Zwart, P. and Kaal, G.T.( 1984) Adenocarcinoma of the kidney in two budgerigars. Avian Pathology 13, 145–150.