Myiasis among slaughtered animals in Kashan, Iran: descriptive a veterinary entomological problem in the tropics

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Kashan University of Medical Sciences

2 Teheran University of Medical Sciences


Myiasis is a common veterinary entomology problem in many slaughterhouses in the tropics.The prevalence of myiasis among slaughtered cattlewas investigated in Kashan Abattoir, central Iran, in 2009. All kinds of dipterous larvae that may cause myiasis were collected and identified.Thenthe prevalence of each infestation was analyzed by statistical tests. The results of the study revealed a total of 4 species of dipterous larvae belonged to two families of Sarcophagidae and Oestridae. The identified species were the following ones: Family Oestridae: Hypodermalineatum (61.4%), Hypodermaovis (12.6%), Oestrusovis (22.7%) and Family Sarcophagidae: Wohlfahrtiamagnifica (3.8%).Of the 7736 examined animals, 2.5% of goats and 0.5% of sheep were infested by any kinds of dipterous larvae. Statistical comparisons were made between the sex of host species and occurrence of myiasis, infested animals and species of larvae, the infested body parts of the host, and finally between the prevalence and origin of the cattle. Statistically the possibility of infestation of goats was 1.43 times more than sheep (odds ratio=1.43). These findingscan be considered by officials to keep the human and animal myiasis under control. There is also need to investigate the prevalence and incidence of animal myiasis in other parts of the country to clarify the spread of infestation in the country and in the region.


Main Subjects

Abo-shehada, M.N., Batainah, Th., Abuharfeil,N., Torgerson, P.R. (2003) Oestrus ovis larval myiasis among goats in northern
Jordan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 59,13-19.
Bauer, C., Steng, G., Prevot, F., Dorchies, P.(2002) Seroprevalence of Oestrus ovis infestation in sheep in southwestern Germany. Veterinary Parasitology 110,
Benakhla, A., Sedraou, S., Benouareth, D.E.,Cabaret, J., Boulard, C. (2004) Epidemiology of sheep infection by
Oestrus ovis in Algeria.Parasite 11,235–238.
Bolognia, J.L., Jorizzo, J.L., Rapini, R. (2008) Cutaneousmyiasis. In:Dermatology.Vol 1.2 nded. Mosby Elsevier 2008,1300-1301.
Boular, C. (2002) Durably controlling bovine hypodermosis. Veterinary Research 33,455–464.
Caracappa, S., Rilli, S., Zanghi, P., Di Marco, V., Dorchies, P. (2000) Epidemiology of ovine oestrosis (Estrus ovis Linne
1761, Diptera: Oestridae) in Sicily. Veterinary Parasitology 92, 233 – 237.
Cestari, T.F., Pessato, S., Ramos-e-Silva, M.(2007) Tungiasis and myiasis. Clinics in Dermatology 25,158-64.
Chams, H., Kheirieh, A., Tirgari, S., Zaim, M.,Javadian, E. (1992) Ophthalmomyiasis in an advanced retinoblastoma. Orbit
11, 31–33.
Colebrook, E., Wall, R.M. (2004) Ectoparasites of livestock in Europe and the Mediterranean region.Veterinary Parasitology 120, 251-274.
Colwell, D.D., Otranto, D. (2006) Crosstransmission
studies with Hypoderma lineatum de Vill. (Diptera: Oestridae):
Attempted infestation of goats (Capra hircus).Veterinary Parasitology 141,302–306.
Dehghani, R., Sedaghat, M.M., SabahiBidgoli,M. (2012) Wound Myiasis Due to Muscadomestica (Diptera: Muscidae)
in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastespersicus (Squamata:
Viperidae). Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 6, 88-89.
Delir, S., Handjani, F., Emad, M., Ardehali, S.(1999) Vulvar myiasis due to Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Clinical and
Experimental Dermatology 24, 279–280.
Dorchies, P.H., Bergeaud, J.P., Tabouret, G.,Duranton, C., Prevot, F., Jacquiet, P.H.(2000) Prevalence and larval burden of
Oestrus ovis (Linne 1761) in sheep and goats in the northern
Mediterraneanregion of France.Veterinary Parasitology 88, 269 – 273.
Edalat, H. (2010) Human Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Luciliasericata(Diptera,Calliphoridae) and Wohlfahrtia
magnifica (Diptera,Sarcophagidae) in Markazi Province of Iran. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases
4, 77-80.
El-Metenawy, T.M., Zayed, A.A. (1992) The prevalence of Hypoderma lineatum and Hypoderma bovis (Diptera : Oestridae)
infesting cattle in Istanbul region, Turkey, Veterinary Medical Journal Giza 40, 145–151.
Esmailnia, K., Monfared, A.N.,Derakhshanfar, A. (2000) Study on the prevalence of cattle hypodermosis in Kazeroon abattoir. Pajouhesh Va Sazandegi 4, 92–93.
Farkas, R., Hall, M.J., Kelemen, F. (1997) Wound myiasis of sheep in Hungary.Veterinary Parasitology 69, 133-44.
Gabaj, M.M., Beesley, W.N., Awan, M.A.Q.(1993) O estrus ovis myiasis in Libyan sheep and goats. Tropical Animal
Health and Production 25, 65 – 68.
Ghasemi, M.J. (1988) Distribution of human myiasis in Iran. [MSc dissertation].School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. [in Persian].
Giangaspero, A., Traversa, D., Trentini, R.,Scala, A., Otranto, D.
(2011):Traumatic myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in Italy.
Veterinary Parasitology 175, 109-112.
Hakimi, R., Yazdi, I. (2002) Oral mucosa myiasis caused by Oestrus ovis. Archives of Iranian Medicine 5, 194–196.
Hall, M.J. (1997) Traumatic myiasis of sheep in Europe: a review. Parasitologia 39,409–413.
Hall, M.J., Farkas, R. (2000) Traumatic myiasis of humans and animals. In: Papp, L., Darvas, B. (Eds.),Contributions to a Manual of PalaearcticDiptera. Science Herald, Budapest 751–768 (Chapter 1.18).
Hall, M.J., Testa, J.M., Smith, L., Adams,
Z.J.O., Khallaayoune, K., Sotiraki, S., Stefanakis, A., Farkas, R., Ready, P.D.(2009) Molecular genetic analysis of populations of Wohlfahrt’s wound myiasis fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica, in
outbreak populations from Greece and Morocco. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23 (Supplement1), 72-79.
JafariShoorijeh, S., Negahban, S., Tamadon,A., Behzadi, M.A. (2009) Prevalence and intensity of Oestrus ovis in sheep
of Shiraz, southern Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41, 1259-1262.
Janbakhsh, B., Pirouz, M.S., Tirgari, S.,Aghamohammadi, A. (1977) A case of ophthalmomyiasis in man by Oestrus
ovis Linneaeus in Tehran (Insecta: Diptera, Oestridae). Acta
MedicaIranica 20, 19-26.
Janbakhsh, B., Tirgari, S., Aghamohamadi, A.(1975) Myiasis in Iranian sheep.Iranian Entomological Society Letter 3,8-12.
Jdalayer, T., Maleki, M., Moghtader, M.(1978) Human urogenital myiasis cause by Chrysomyiabezziana. Iranian Journal of Public Health 7, 116–118.
Karatepe, M., Karatepe, B. (2008) Hypodermosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigde province, Turkey. Tropical Animal Health and Production 40,383–386.
Khoobdel, M., SeyediRashti, S.M.A.,Shayeghi, M., Tirgari, S. (2004) The survey fauna of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae flies in Tehran and suburb Public Health research. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Researches 2, 69-78.
Kilani, M., HadjKacem, H., Dorchies, P.H., Franc ,M. (1986) Observations sur le cycle annual d ’Oestrus ovis en Tunisie
. Revue MedicineVeterinaria 137, 451– 457.
Karimi, Gh.,Vahidi, M.R. (1999) A case report of pharyngeal myiasis. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical
Science and Health Services 1, 91–94.
Langan, S.M., Dervan, P., Loughlins, O.(2004) A moving scalp nodule in a returningtraveler. British Journal of Dermatology 151, 1270.
Merdivenci, A. (1963) The occurence of Hypoderma lineatum in cattles in Turkey [in Turkish]. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 8, 206-212.
Mimioglu, M. (1966) Hypodermosis on cattle and Ankara goats. Ankara University Faculty of Veterinary and Agriculture
Press [in Turkish]. 43p.
Minar, J. (1976) A case of eye myiasis in man caused by first instar larvae of Oestrusovis L. (Diptera Oestridae) in Iran. Folia Parasitologica 23, 283-284.
Mohammadzadeh, T., Hadadzadeh, R., Esfandiari, F., Sadjjadi, S.M. (2008) A Case of Gingival Myiasis Caused by
Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 2, 53-56.
Navidpour, Sh., Hoghooghi-Rad, N.,Goodrazi, H., Pooladgar, A.R. (1996) Outbreak of Chrysomya bezziana in Khoozestan Province, Iran. Veterinary Record 139, 217.
Navidpour, Sh., Goudarzi, A., Gholamiyan, A., Jahanifard, E. (2009) Geographical Races of Old World Screw-Worm Fly,
Chrysomyia bezziana Villeneuve,1914,in South-Western Iran. Journal of Biological Sciences 9, 381-384.
O'Brien, D.J. (1998) Warble Fly Prevalence in Europe 1997. COST 811.
Pandey, V. S. (1989) Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis infection of sheep in the highveld of Zimbabwe. Veterinary Parasitology
31, 275 – 280.
Papadopoulos, E., Prevot, F., Diakou, A.,Dorchies, Ph. (2006) Comparison of infection rates of Oestrus ovis between
sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks. Veterinary Parasitology 138, 382-385.
Razmjou, H., Mowlavi, G., Nateghpour, M.,Solaymani- Mohammadi, S., Kia, E.B.(2007) Opthalmomyiasis caused by
Flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in a patient with eye melignancy in Iran.Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne
Diseases 1, 53–56.
Reina, D., Alcaide, M., Martinez-Moreno, J., Sanchez-Lopez, J., Hernandez, S., Navarrete, I. (2002) approach concerning chronobiology of Oestrus ovis in south-western Spain.In: Good, M., Hall, M.J., Losson, B.,O’Brien, D.J., Pithan, K., Sol, J. (Eds.),
Mange and Myiasis of Livestock.COST Action 833, EUR 20364, pp.155–159.
Salimi, M., Edalat, H., Jourabchi, A., Oshaghi,M.A. (2010) First Report of Human Nasal Myiasis Caused by Eristalistenaxin Iran (Diptera:Syrphidae) Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 4, 77–80.
Sayin, F., Meric, I. (1976) Field trials with Ruelene 6-R and Tiguvonfort he control of Hypoderma larvae in cattle
[in Turkish]. Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 28, 302–307.
Schnur, H.J., Zivotofsky, D., Wilamowski, A.(2009) Myiasis in domestic animals in Israel. Veterinary Parasitology 161,
SoleimaniAhmadi, M., Nasirian, H.,NazemiGhesmi, A.M., Yaghoobi
Ershadi, M.R. (2009) Human extensive head Skin myiasis. Iranian Journal of Public Health 38, 134–138.
Sotiraki, S., Stefanakis, A., Hall, M.J.R.(2002): An outbreak of wohlfahrtiosis on Crete island, Greece. In: Good, M.,
Hall, M.J., Losson, B., O’Brien, D.J., Pithan, K., Sol, J. (Eds.), Mange and Myiasis of Livestock. COST Action 833, EUR 20364, p. 74.
Soulsby, E.J.L. (1986) Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. Seventh Edition, Bailliere Tindall, London.
Stacey, M.J., Blanch, R.J. (1998) A Case of External Ophthalmomyiasis in A Deployed UK Soldier. Journal of the
Royal Army Medical Corps 154, 60-62.
Talari, S.A., Yeganeh Moghadam, A.,Dehghani, R. (2002):Chryzomya bezziana infestation. Archives of
Iranian Medicine 5, 56–58.
Tirgari, S., Khalkhali, K., Aghamohammadi, A. (1977) First case of auricular myiasisdue to Sarcophaga. (Bercaea) haemorrhoidalis (Fallen) (Dipt.Sarcophagiae). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 112, 255–256.
Tavassoli, M., Imani, A., Yousefnia Pasha, M., Tukmechi, A., Tajik, H. (2000) Bacteria Associated with Subcutaneous Abscesses of Cattle Caused by Hypoderma spp Larvae in North of Iran. Veterinary Research Forum 1,123-127.
Ul-Hasan, M., Nisar Khan, M., Iqbal, Z.,Ahmad Khan, I., Chaduhry, S.A.,Sajid, M.S. (2008) Surveillance of
Cattle Hypodermosis in District Chakwal, Pakistan. International
Journal of Agriculture and Biology 10,337–339.
Wall, R., French, N., Morgan, K. (1992) Blowfly species composition in sheep myiasis in Britain. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 6, 177–178.
Yilma, J.M., Dorchies, P.H. (1991):Epidemiology of Oestrus ovis in
southwest France. Veterinary Parasitology 40,315 – 323.
Yilma, J.M., Genet, A. (2000) Epidemiology of the sheep nasal bot, Oestrus Ovis (Diptera : Oestridae), in Central Ethiopia. Revue de MedecineVeterinaire 151, 143-150.
Yin, H., Ma, M., Yuan, G., Huang, S., Liu, Z.,Luo, J., Guan, G. (2003) Hypodermosis in China. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2, 179-183.
Zeybek, H. (1988) Distribution of Hypoderma spp in cattle and Angora goat in Ankara province [in Turkish]. Etlik Veteriner
Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi 6, 45–56.
Zumpt, F. (1965) Myiasis in man and animals in the Old World. London, Butterworths 267 pp.