A case report of atypical borreliosis in a dog

Document Type : Research Articles


1 University of Tehran

2 Pasteur Institute of Iran


Borreliosis is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted by arthropods. The infection is more common in dogs than other domestic animals. A one-month-old puppy with fever, jaundice and digestion disorder was referred to Small Animal Hospital. Laboratory results included severely regenerative anemia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, strong spirochetemia and significant changes in serum proteins. The attempt to isolate the bacteria in animal laboratory failed. The infection was treated using the antibiotics and the animal completely recovered.


Appel, M. J., Allan, S., Jacobson, R. H.,Lauderdale, T. L., Chang, Y. F., Shin,S. J., Thomford, J. W., Todhunter, R.J., and Summers, B. A. (1993)Experimental Lyme disease in dogs produces arthritis and persistent infection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 167, 651–664.
Barbour, A. G., and Hayes, S. F. (1986)Biology of Borrelia species.
Microbiological Reviews 50, 381–400.
Bushmich, S. L. (1994) Lyme Borreliosis in domestic animals. Joural of Spirochet Tick Disease 1, 24−28.
Chiao, J. W., Villalon, P., Schwartz, I., and Wormser, G. P. (2000) Modulation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by a canine Lyme disease vaccine of recombinant outer surface protein A
(OspA). FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 28, 193−196.
Post, J. E., Shaw, E. E., and Wright, S. (1986) Suspected borreliosis in cattle. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
539, 488.
Duffy, J. (1987) Lyme disease. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 1,511–527.
Duffy, J. (1990) Lyme disease. Annals of Allergy 65, 1–13.
Eng, T. R., Wilson, M. I., Spielman, A., and Lastavica, C. C. (1988) Greater risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in dogs
than in people. Journal of Infectious Disease 158, 1410−1411.
Fritz, C. L., and Kjemtrup, A. M. (2003) Lyme borreliosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223,1261−1270.
Garbe, C. (1991) Borrelia infections of the skin--progress of knowledge since the discovery of Lyme disease. Hautarzt
42, 356–65.
Golightly, M. J., Thomas, A., and Viciana, A.L. (1990) The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Laboratory Medicine
21, 299−304.
Greene, R. T. (1991) Canine Lyme borreliosis.Veterinary Clinics of North America:Small Animal Practice 21, 51–64.
Guerra, M. A., Walker, E. D., and Kitron, U.(2001) Canine surveillance system for Lyme borreliosis in Wisconsin and
northern Illinois: geographic distribution and risk factor analysis.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 65, 546−52.
Hodzic, E., Feng, S., Holden, K., Freet, K. J.,and Barthold, S. W. (2008) Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following antibiotic treatment in mice.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 52, 1728–1736.
Jackson, S., Gilchrist, H., and Nesbitt, L. T.(2007) Update on the dermatologic use of systemic glucocorticosteroids. Dermatology and Therapy 20, 187–205.
Littman, M. P. (2003) Canine borreliosis.Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 33, 827–862.
Mullegger, R. R. (2004) Dermatological manifestations of Lyme borreliosis.European Journal of Dermatology 14,296–309.
Nekoei, H., and Asmar, M. (1993, 3 December) The new studies on borreliosis in Pasteur Institute of Iran.The 2nd National Congress of Zoonoses in Iran, Tabriz, Iran.Nekoei, H., and Asmar, M. (1996) Distribution of borreliosis in Iran. The 3rd National Congress of Zoonoses in Iran,Mashhad, Iran. pp.23−25.
Nielssen, A., Carr, A., and Heseltine, J. (2002)Update on canine Lyme disease.Veterinary Medicine 1, 604–609.
Paster, B. J., and Dewhirst, F. E. (2000)Phylogenetic foundation of spirochetes.Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 2, 341–344.
Przytula, L., Gindzienska-Sieskiewicz, E., and Sierakowski, S. (2006) Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme arthritis. Przegl
Epidemiology 60 Suppl (1), 125–30.
Scorpio, D. G., Wachtman, L. M., Tunin, R.S., Barat, N. C., Garyu, J. W., and Dumler, J. S. (2008) Retrospective
clinical and molecular analysis of conditioned laboratory dogs (Canis familiaris) with serologic reactions to Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi,and Rickettsia rickettsii. Journal of the
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 47, 23−28.
Shaw, S. E., Binns, S. H., Birtles, R. J., Day,M. J., Smithson, R., and Kenny, M. J.(2005) Molecular evidence of ticktransmitted
infections in dogs and cats in the United Kingdom. Veterinary
Record 157, 645−648.
Skarda, J. (2005) Lyme borreliosis, the present diagnostic criteria. Folia Veterinaria 49, S33−S34.
Steere, A. C. (2001) Lyme disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 345,115−125.
Straubinger, R. K. (2000) PCR-based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-day postinfection period. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38,2191–2199.
Straubinger, R. K., Straubinger, A. F.,Summers, B. A., and Jacobson, R. H.(2000) Status of Borrelia burgdorferi
infection after antibiotic treatment and the effects of corticosteroids: an experimental study. Journal of
Infectious Diseases 181, 1069–1081.
Straubinger, R. K., Summers, B. A., Chang,Y., and Appel, M. J. G. (1997)Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment. Journal of Clinical
Microbiology 35, 111–116.
Wang, G., van Dam, A. P., Schwartz, I., and Dankert, J. (1999) Molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato:taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12, 633–653.
Whitney, M. S., Schwan, T. G., Sultemeier, K.B., McDonald, P. S., and Brillhart, M.N. (2007) Spirochetemia caused by Borrelia turicatae infection in 3 dogs in Texas. Veterinary Clinical
Pathology 36, 212−216.