Seroepidemiology of Coxiella Burnetii in commercial dairy herds in northeast of Iran

Document Type : Research Articles


Ferdowsi University of Mashhad


Q fever is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii.
Limited information is available concerning theseroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Iran.A
serological survey was conducted to describe the eroepidemiology of Coxiellaburnetii infection in dairy cattle in Khorasan Razavi province located in northeast of Iran. 246 dairy cattle from 19 commercial dairy herds that were distributed in 9 counties were selected. Blood samples were assayed for antibody to Coxiella burnetii using CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit.Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii at animal and herd level was 22.3 (95% CI: 17.1-27.6) and 78.9 (95% CI: 60-97) percent, respectively. Coxiella burnetii was distributed all over the province. The proportion of seropositive animals ranged from 0 - 62.5%in the studied herds and it was different significantly in various regions (P=0.001).Parity and herd size were not associated with seroprevalence. High prevalence of antibody against Coxiella burnetii in the cattle population of the study area implies zoonotic and economic importance. More investigations on the other reservoirs and human (especially at risk population) are necessary to make epidemiologic feature of Coxiellosis clear.


Main Subjects

Angelakis, E. and Raoult, D. (2010) Q fever.Veterinary Microbiology 140, 297-309.
Arricau-Bouvery, N. and Rodolakis, A. (2005)Is Q fever an emerging or reemerging zoonosis? Veterinary Research 36,
Babudieri, B. Q fever (1959) A zoonosis.International Journal of Advanced Veterinary Science and Technology 5,82–182.
Fournier, P.E., Marrie, T.J. andRaoult, D.(1998) Diagnosis of Q Fever. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, 1823-1834.
Hartzell, J.D.,Peng, S.W., Wood-Morris, R.N.,Sarmiento, D.M., Collen, J.F., Robben,P.M. and Moran, K.A. (2007) Atypical
Q Fever in US Soldiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13, 1247-1249.
Hellenbrand, W., Breuer, T. and Petersen, L.(2001) Changing Epidemiology of Q Fever in Germany, 1947-1999.Emerging Infectious Diseases 7, 789-796.
Kaplan, M.M. and Bertagna, P. (1955) The geographical distribution of Q fever.Bull World Health Organization 13,
Kennerman, E., Rousset, E., Golcu, E.andDufour, P. (2010) Seroprevalence of Q fever (coxiellosis) in sheep from
the Southern Marmara Region, Turkey.Comparative Immunology,
Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 33, 37-45.
Khalili, M. andSakhaee, E. (2009) An update on a serologic survey of Q Fever in domestic animals in Iran. The
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 1031–1032.
Kirkan, k., Kaya, O., Tekbiyik, S. and Parin,U. (2008) Detection of Coxiellaburnetii in Cattle by PCR. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 32,215-220.
Marrie, T.J. (2007) Epidemiology of Q fever.In: Raoult, D. andParola, P.Rickettsial diseases. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc, New York. pp 281– 289.
Marrie,T.J., Stein, A., Janigan, D. andRaoult,D.(1996) Route of infection determines
the clinical manifestations of acute Q fever. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 173, 484–487.
Maurin, M. andRaoult, D. (1999) Q Fever.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12,518-553.
McCaughey, C., Murray, L.J., McKenna, J.P.,Menzies, F.D., McCullough, S.J.,O'Neill, H.J., Wyatt, D.E., Cardwell, C.R. and Coyle, P.V. (2010) Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seroprevalence in
cattle. Epidemiology and Infection 138,21-27.
Nakoune, E., Debaere, O., Koumanda-Kotogne, F., Selekon, B.,Samory, F.and Talarmin, A. (2004) Serological surveillance of brucellosis and Q fever in cattle in the Central African
Republic. Acta Tropica 92, 147-151.
Norlander, L. (2000) Q fever epidemiology and pathogenesis. Microbes and Infection 2, 417-424.
Psaroulaki, A., Hadjichristodoulou, C.,Loukaides, F., Soteriades, E.,Konstantinidis, A., Papastergiou, P.,Ioannidou, M.C. andTselentis Y.(2006) Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 25, 576–586.
Rahimi, E., Doosti, A., Ameri, M., Kabiri, E.andSharifian, B. (2009) Detection of Coxiellaburnetii by Nested PCR in
Bulk Milk Samples from Dairy Bovine, Ovine, and Caprine Herds in Iran.Zoonoses Public Health 57, 38-41.
Romich, J.A. (2008) Understanding Zoonotic Diseases, Thomson Delmar Learning,NewYork. pp 288-292.
Sakhaee, E., Khalili, M. (2010) The first serologic study of Q fever in sheep in Iran. Tropical Animal Health and Production 42, 1561-1564.
Salman, M.D., Hernandez, J.A., Braun, I.(1990) Aseroepidemiological study of five bovine diseases in dairy farms of the coastal region of Baja California, Mexico. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 9, 143-153.
Scrimgeour, E.M., Al-Ismaily, S.I., Rolain,J.M., Al-Dhahry, S.H., El-Khatim, H.S., Raoult, D. (2003) Q Fever in human and livestock populations in Oman. Annals of the New York
Academy of Sciences 990, 221-225.
Thrusfield, M. (2005) Veterinary Epidemiology, Blackwell science Ltd,Oxford. pp 234-238.