Ovine and Caprine Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)

Document Type : Review Articles


Jordan University of Science and Technology


Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), is an economically important disease of livestock, especially sheep and goats, where it can cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death.Cats are the main reservoir for the toxoplasmosis which can contaminate the environments of other animal and human beings by their faeces that contain sporulated oocysts.Toxoplasmosis is diagnosed mainly by direct smear, Immunohistochemistry, serology testing and PCR. Preventive measures include education of the farmers, reduce environmental
contamination by oocysts, reducing the number of cats capable of shedding oocysts, limiting the breeding of cats to maintain healthy adults, control of future breeding and adequate
continuous control programs of stray cats. Feeding cats with commercial diets or with food processed either by cooking or freezing can reduce the risk of disease transmission. A live
vaccine (Toxovax®) is commercially marketed in some countries for reducing losses to the sheep industry from congenital toxoplasmosis. History, Life cycle, Clinical signs, Diagnosis, Mode of transmission, Epidemiology, Treatment, Control, Prevention and Vaccination against T. gondii infection in small animals
have been reviewed in this article.


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