A survey on Nosema apis infection in apiaries of Urmia, North-West of Iran

Document Type : Research Articles


1 Urmia University

2 Urmia


The microsporidium Nosema apis is a protozoan parasite specific for the epithelial cells of the ventricles of adult bees. Nosemosis occurs throughout the world. Between February and May 2002-2003, samples were randomly collected twice from 20 apiaries in Urmia region North-West of Iran. During this survey total of 487 hives were examined for infection with N. apis. In the first stage of study (February 2002), no infection was seen in hives samples, but in second stage of same year (May 2002) the infection was seen in one apiary with 131 hives. In third and forth stage of study (February and May 2003) the infection was seen in one and 4 apiaries respectively. The results showed the low infection rate in the early months of the first year of study that it was increased in next year. The reason of high infection rate in the second year of the study can be the result of more rainy and cloudy days in this period comparing to the first year. This has caused the hone bees to stay more often in the hives and increase spores excreted and subsequently spore intake were raised.


Main Subjects

Anderson, D. L. and H. Giacon. 1992.Reduced pollen collection by honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies infected
with Nosema apis and sacbrood virus. J.Econ. Entomol. 85,47-51.
Bailey, L. 1957. Comb fumigation for Nosema disease. Am. Bee J. 97,24-26.
Bailey, L. 1962. Bee diseases. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, UK.Bailey, L. 1967. Nosema apis and dysentery of
the honey bee. Apic. Res. 6,121-125.
Bailey, L. 1981. Honey Bee Pathology.Academic Press,, london, UK.Bulla. 1977. Comparative Pathobiology. in Vol. 1: Biology of Microsporidia ; Vol. 2:Systematics of the Microsporidia, . L. A. C.
T.C, ed. Plenum Press, New York, USA,and London, UK.
Cantwell, G. E. 1970. Standard methods for counting nosema spores. . Am. Bee J.110,222-223.
Cantwell, G. E. and H. Shimanuki. 1970. The use of heat to control Nosema and increase production for the commercial beekeeper.Am. Bee J. 110,263.
De Ruiter, A. and J. Van der Steen. 1989.Disinfection of combs by means of acetic acid (96%) against Nosema. Apidologie.
Fries, I. 1988. Contribution to the study of Nosema disease (Nosema apis Z.) in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Rapport
166, Sveriges Landbruksuniversitet,.Institutionen för husdjurens utfodring och värd, Uppsala, Sweden.
Goodwin, M., A. Ten Houten, J. Perry, and R.Blackmann. 1990. Cost benefit analysis of using fumagillin to treat Nosema. NZ
Beekeeper. 208,11-12.
Kulikov, N. S. and M. N. Akramovsky. 1961.Sroki ziznesposobnosti spor mosey u pcel.Pcelovodstov,. 38,46.
L’Arrivee, J. C. M. 1965. Sources of nosema infection. Am. Bee J. 105,246-248.
Malone, L. A., H. S. Gatehouse, and E. L.Tregidga. 2001. Effects of time,temperature and honey on Nosema apis, a parasite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera).J. Invertebr. Pathol. 77,258-268.
Matheson, A. 1996. World bee health update 1996. Bee World. 77,45-51.
Steche, W. 1985. Revision of Zander & Bottcher. Nosematose. in Handbuch der Bienenkunde. K. d. Biene, ed.Webster, T. C. 1993. Nosema apis spore transmission among honey bees. Am. Bee J.
Weiser, J. 1961. Die Mikrosporidien als Parasiten der Insekten. Verlag Paul Pavey,Hamburg and Berlin, Germany.
White, G. F. 1919. Nosema Disease. Page 54. Vol. 780. U. S. D. o. Agriculture, ed. Bull.