Despite the development of novel drugs and technologies in combating the infectious diseases, they remain as a global health challenge. The use of conventional antimicrobial drugs are always associated with problems such as antimicrobial resistance, adverse effects, and inefficient drug delivery. In this regard, the unique physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles have led to increase in the researches on nanoparticles and their application as promising antimicrobial products. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are new carrier systems developed as an alternative to traditional nanoparticle vehicles. The solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), lipid-drug conjugates (LDCs), Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) and lipid-polymer nanoparticles (LPNs) are carriers with a lipid matrix showing advantages for different applications due to the use of biodegradable, and biocompatible lipids. LNPs have exclusive properties owing to their ultra-small size and high surface area, thereby, they are able to increase drug targeting, treatment efficiency and reduce the toxicity of antimicrobial drugs. LNPs are often used as sustained release systems, and they also used for improving drug bioavailability. It has been found that the composition and structure of LNPs are two critical factors that may influence their pharmaceutical performance in different body organs. This review focuses on the development of LNP systems for antimicrobial drugs delivery and gives an overview on the modern LNP- based therapeutic strategies against the infections. The mechanism of action and advantages of these nanoparticles as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-parasitic agents are highlighted in this review.
lipid nanoparticles, drug delivery, carrier systems, antimicrobial agents, infectious diseases
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